Wegen Pandemie: Zuwanderung um einen Drittel zurückgegangen

Asia's Tech News Daily

Die Zuwanderung in die OECD-Länder ist im Jahr 2020 wegen der Corona-Pandemie um rund einen Drittel zurückgegangen. Die dauerhafte Migration war mit rund 3,7 Millionen Menschen auf dem niedrigsten Stand seit 2003. In der Schweiz war der Rückgang geringer als anderswo.

Wegen Pandemie: Zuwanderung um einen Drittel zurückgegangen
© Bereitgestellt von Blick Im Jahr 2020 ist die Migration in die Mitgliedsländer der Organisation für wirtschaftliche Zusammenarbeit und Entwicklung (OECD) um einen Drittel zurückgegangen. (Symbolbild)

In der Schweiz ging zum Beispiel die Zahl der neuen Asylanträge um 22,5 Prozent zurück, während der Rückgang in den Ländern der Organisation für wirtschaftliche Zusammenarbeit und Entwicklung (OECD) insgesamt bei 31 Prozent lag, wie die OECD am Donnerstag bekannt gab. Das sei der stärkste Rückgang seit dem Ende des Balkankrieges in den 1990er Jahren.

Dass die Einwanderung in die Schweiz geringer ist als in anderen OECD-Ländern, sei darauf zurückzuführen, dass wegen der Personenfreizügigkeit, die einen grossen Teil der Schweizer Migration ausmache, erklärte OECD-Migrationsexperte Thomas Liebig bei der Präsentation der neusten Migrationsstudie. Dadurch seien die durch Corona bedingten Einschränkungen weniger stark ins Gewicht gefallen. Die Schweiz habe den geringsten Rückgang der Einwanderung von allen OECD-Ländern ausgewiesen.

Ein Fokus der Studie lag auch auf der Durchmischung der eingewanderten Bevölkerung mit den Einheimischen – insbesondere an Schulen. Denn in fast allen anderen Ländern zeigen die Zahlen, dass Kinder eingewanderter Eltern häufig dort zur Schule gehen, wo es bereits viele andere Kinder mit Migrationshintergrund gibt. Das liege daran, dass sich Einwanderer häufig in Quartieren niederlassen, wo es bereits viele andere Landsleute gebe.

Diese sogenannte schulische Segregation hat gemäss OECD in den meisten Ländern seit 2006 gegenüber 2018 deutlich zugenommen. Für die Kinder habe dies ein weniger hohes Bildungsniveau zur Folge. In Deutschland – das Land mit dem höchsten Wert – kann dies je nach Betrachtung einem Rückstand von 1,5 Schuljahren bedeuten. Auch in den Niederlanden sind es fast 1,5 Schuljahre.

Auch unterscheidet sich die Schweiz von einem Grossteil der anderen Länder, wo mit einem halben Jahr ein deutlich geringerer Rückstand ausgewiesen wird. Am besten schneiden in diesem Bereich Luxemburg und Australien ab, wo Kinder dank der Durchmischung gar von positiven Effekten profitieren.

Viele Menschen, die in die Schweiz einwandern, kommen aus Europa oder gar aus den Nachbarländern. «Diese haben teils eine sehr hohe Qualifikation», sagte Liebig. Entsprechend wusste er auch Positives beim Einfluss auf den Schweizer Staatshaushalt zu berichten. Mit dem sogenannten Nettofiskalbeitrag wird das Verhältnis aller direkten und indirekten Einnahmen wie Steuern und Abgaben gegenüber allen direkten und indirekten Ausgaben betrachtet.

«Bei den Nettofiskalbeiträgen der Zuwanderer zum öffentlichen Haushalt steht die Schweiz in einer Spitzengruppe und hat sich weiter verbessert», sagte Liebig. Der Nettofiskalbeitrag von Eingewanderten sei in der Schweiz etwa 15 Prozent höher als jener der in der Schweiz Geborenen.

Nach dem Rückgang erwarten die Experten nun wieder einen deutlichen Anstieg der Migration. Ein grosses Thema sei etwa auch der Fachkräftemangel.

Gemäss Liebig brauche es insbesondere bei der nachhaltigen Integration mehr Schub, beispielsweise in der Sprachförderung. Auch die Mobilität aus Quartieren mit einer hohen Segregation müsse gestärkt werden. Zudem brauche es spezifische frauen- und familienbezogene Ansätze. Es sei aber erfreulich, dass der Fokus auf die Frauen bei der Integrationspolitik zunehme.

(SDA)

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