Swap feta for mozzarella and make your own burgers instead of buying premade ones: Scientists reveal the simple supermarket swaps you can make to cut your carbon footprint

Scientists studied production of 30 popular foods, from farm to shelfFeta and goats cheese produce higher CO2 than mozzarella or halloumiGround beef was found to produce 25 per cent less CO2 than premade burgersIn terms of alcohol options, gin releases 2.8kg of CO2/kg more than red wine

Whether it’s turning off lights when not using them or deciding to walk instead of drive, many of us try to take measures to reduce our carbon footprint.

Now, scientists have revealed the simple supermarket swaps you can make to cut your ‘carbon calories’.

Their findings suggest that people looking to go greener should swap feta for mozzarella and make their own burgers instead of buying premade ones.

Scientists have revealed the simple supermarket swaps you can make to cut your 'carbon calories'

Scientists have revealed the simple supermarket swaps you can make to cut your ‘carbon calories’

Feta requires huge amounts of water to produce, and releases 34kg of CO2/kg during production
Mozzarella produces just 9kg of CO2/kg

Feta (left) requires huge amounts of water to produce, and releases 34kg of CO2/kg during production, according to CarbonCloud. Instead, they suggest that shoppers should consider swapping to mozzarella (right), which produces 9kg of CO2/kg

Swaps to reduce your ‘carbon calories’
Swap  For 
Milk chocolate (5.9 kg of CO2/kg) Foam sweets (1.6kg of CO2/kg)
Feta (34kg of CO2/kg)  Mozzarella (9.0kg of CO2/kg) 
Grapes (1.1kg of CO2/kg)  Strawberries (0.19kg of CO2/kg) 
Whole milk (1.9kg of CO2/kg)  Skimmed milk (1.2kg of CO2/kg) 
Goats cheese (46kg of CO2/kg)  Halloumi (30kg of CO2/kg) 
Latte (2.4kg of CO2/kg)  TENZING (0.33kg of CO2/kg) 
Gin (4.3kg of CO2/kg)  Red wine (1.5kg of CO2/kg) 
Yoghurt in glass pot (4.1kg of CO2/kg)  Yoghurt in paper pot (3.1kg of CO2/kg) 
Tomatoes from UK (3.8kg of CO2/kg)  Tomatoes from Spain (1.8kg of CO2/kg) 
Dried pasta (1.1kg of CO2/kg)  Potatoes (0.26kg of CO2/kg) 
Frozen broccoli (0.93kg of CO2/kg)  Fresh broccoli (0.6kg of CO2/kg) 
Beef burger (22kg of CO2/kg)  Beef mince (16kg of CO2/kg) 
Seabass from Europe (14kg of CO2/kg)  Cod from UK (8.1kg of CO2/kg) 
Pre-sliced ham (5.9kg of CO2/kg)  Deli counter ham (5.1kg of CO2/kg) 
Crisps (2.9kg of CO2/kg)  Peanuts (1.6kg of CO2/kg) 

In the study, researchers from food data firm CarbonCloud were commissioned by natural energy drink TENZING to investigate the carbon footprint of the average shopping basket.

The team studied the production of 30 popular food products, all the way through from farm to supermarket shelf.

Factors considered included the nitrous oxide levels from fields, emissions from fertiliser, emissions from deforestation, energy use at factories, and the productivity of crops.

Based on their analysis, the team was able to estimate the number of kilograms of CO2 produced per kilogram of finished products.

Their findings show that feta and goats cheese both require huge amounts of water to produce, releasing 34kg of CO2/kg and 46kg of CO2/kg respectively during production.

Instead, the experts suggest that shoppers should consider swapping to mozzarella (9kg of CO2/kg) or halloumi (30kg of CO2/kg).

Looking at popular meats, ground beef was found to produce 25 per cent less CO2 than premade burgers, while ham from the deli counter is a greener option than pre-sliced ham.

And in terms of alcohol options, gin releases 2.8kg of CO2/kg more than red wine.

Other easy options include switching from milk chocolate to foam sweets, changing from frozen broccoli to fresh broccoli, and opting for yoghurt from a paper pot rather than a glass pot.

And while it might sound counterintuitive, the researchers say that shoppers should choose tomatoes from Spain over those from the UK.

Dr Erik Edlund, VP of Science at CarbonCloud, explained: ‘A tomato grown in the UK that has travelled less but is greenhouse-grown has a higher climate footprint than the Spanish tomato, not grown in a greenhouse.

‘This is just one example of how the food we perceive to be more artificial and processed doesn’t always have a higher footprint.’

In terms of alcohol options, the study found that gin releases 2.8kg of CO2/kg more than red wine

In terms of alcohol options, the study found that gin releases 2.8kg of CO2/kg more than red wine

Beef mince produces 16kg of CO2/kg
Pre-made beef burgers produce 22kg of CO2/kg

Looking at popular meats, ground beef (left) was found to produce 25 per cent less CO2 than premade burgers (right)

While you might worry that making these swaps will increase the price of your weekly shop, CarbonCloud says this is not the case.

The average costs of the ‘high carbon’ and ‘low carbon’ baskets were compared using www.trolley.co.uk, which confirmed that they were similarly priced.

‘The basket of swaps proves that reducing the carbon footprint of Brits’ weekly shop doesn’t mean having to spend more money,’ CarbonCloud added.

The report comes shortly after researchers from the University of Bristol called for restaurants to add carbon labels to their menus to encourage diners to choose greener options.


In their study, the team asked survey participants whether they would order a burrito with a beef, chicken or vegetarian filling.

Each burrito was accompanied with a traffic light-style ranking of sustainability, of which the vegetarian option was in green for most sustainable.

They found that five per cent more of the participants went veggie when the eco-labels were included, while 15 per cent more went for vegetarian or chicken – the second most sustainable option.

The authors wrote: ‘The eco-label was particularly effective among those who were motivated to act sustainably.’

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