Shadow of cosmic water cloud reveals the temperature of the young Universe

the latest tech news, global tech news daily, tech news today, startups, usa tech, asia tech, china tech, eu tech, global tech, in-depth electronics reviews, 24h tech news, 24h tech news, top mobile apps, tech news daily, gaming hardware, big tech news, useful technology tips, expert interviews, reporting on the business of technology, venture capital funding, programing language

Shadow of cosmic water cloud reveals the temperature of the young Universe

Astronomers have found a new and original method for measuring the cosmic microwave background’s temperature when the Universe was still in its infancy. Writing in ‘Nature’, they confirm in their new study the early cooling of our Universe shortly after the Big Bang and open up new perspectives on the elusive dark energy.

the latest tech news, global tech news daily, tech news today, startups, usa tech, asia tech, china tech, eu tech, global tech, in-depth electronics reviews, 24h tech news, 24h tech news, top mobile apps, tech news daily, gaming hardware, big tech news, useful technology tips, expert interviews, reporting on the business of technology, venture capital funding, programing language

An international group of astrophysicists has discovered a new method to estimate the cosmic microwave background temperature of the young Universe only 880 million years after the Big Bang. It is the first time that the temperature of the cosmic microwave background radiation – a relic of the energy released by the Big Bang – has been measured at such an early epoch of the Universe.

The prevailing cosmological model assumes that the Universe has cooled off since the Big Bang – and still continues to do so. The model also describes how the cooling process should proceed, but so far it has only been directly confirmed for relatively recent cosmic times. The discovery not only sets a very early milestone in the development of the cosmic background temperature, but could also have implications for the enigmatic dark energy. The article ‘Microwave background temperature at a redshift of 6.34 from H2O absorption’ was published in Nature today.

Global Tech News Daily

The scientists used the NOEMA (Northern Extended Millimeter Array) observatory in the French Alps, the most powerful radio telescope in the Northern Hemisphere, to observe HFLS3, a massive starburst galaxy at a distance corresponding to an age of only 880 million years after the Big Bang. They discovered a screen of cold water gas that casts a shadow on the cosmic microwave background radiation.

The shadow appears because the colder water absorbs the warmer microwave radiation on its path towards Earth, and its darkness reveals the temperature difference. As the temperature of the water can be determined from other observed properties of the starburst, the difference indicates the temperature of the Big Bang’s relic radiation, which at that time was about seven times higher than in the Universe today.

Global Tech News Daily

‘Besides proof of cooling, this discovery also shows us that the Universe in its infancy had some quite specific physical characteristics that no longer exist today,’ said lead author Professor Dr Dominik Riechers from the University of Cologne’s Institute of Astrophysics. ‘Quite early, about 1.5 billion years after the Big Bang, the cosmic microwave background was already too cold for this effect to be observable. We have therefore a unique observing window that opens up to a very young Universe only,’ he continued. In other words, if a galaxy with otherwise identical properties as HFLS3 were to exist today, the water shadow would not be observable because the required contrast in temperatures would no longer exist.

‘This important milestone not only confirms the expected cooling trend for a much earlier epoch than has previously been possible to measure, but could also have direct implications for the nature of the elusive dark energy,’ said co-author Dr Axel Weiss from the Max Planck Institute for Radio Astronomy (MPIfR) in Bonn. Dark energy is thought to be responsible for the accelerated expansion of the Universe over the past few billion years, but its properties remain poorly understood because it cannot be directly observed with the currently available facilities and instruments.

However, its properties influence the evolution of cosmic expansion, and hence the cooling rate of the Universe over cosmic time. Based on this experiment, the properties of dark energy remain – for now – consistent with those of Einstein’s ‘cosmological constant’. ‘That is to say, an expanding Universe in which the density of dark energy does not change,’ explained Weiss.

Having discovered one such cold water cloud in a starburst galaxy in the early Universe, the team is now setting out to find many more across the sky. Their aim is to map out the cooling of the Big Bang echo within the first 1.5 billion years of cosmic history. ‘This new technique provides important new insights into the evolution of the Universe, which are very difficult to constrain otherwise at such early epochs,’ Riechers said.

‘Our team is already following this up with NOEMA by studying the surroundings of other galaxies,’ said co-author and NOEMA project scientist Dr Roberto Neri. ‘With the expected improvements in precision from studies of larger samples of water clouds, it remains to be seen if our current, basic understanding of the expansion of the Universe holds.’

“Microwave background temperature at a redshift of 6.34 from H2O absorption”

News Related

OTHER NEWS

Space Foundation Launches Space Commerce Institute

Space Foundation, a nonprofit advocate organization founded in 1983 for the global space ecosystem, has launched Space Commerce Institute, a program offered by Center for Innovation and Education to facilitate ... Read more »

Boost for space clusters across the UK

These regional hubs, known as space clusters, will support new and growing companies, building on local expertise and catalysing investment into the space sector. Over 600,000 pounds will go towards ... Read more »

Turion Space and NanoAvionics to build a satellite for orbital reconnaissance mission

US company Turion Space, aiming to build spacecraft to remove orbital-debris, satellite servicing, and domain awareness, has selected NanoAvionics small satellite bus, the MP42, as the basis for its ‘Droid-1’ ... Read more »

Incoming! Debris enroute to the Moon

The Moon is set to gain one more crater. A leftover SpaceX Falcon 9 upper stage will impact the lunar surface in early March, marking the first time that a ... Read more »

Rocket Lab to expand Colorado dootprint with new Space Systems Complex

Rocket Lab USA will open a new space systems complex in Littleton, Colorado to support growing customer demand for flight software, mission simulation, and Guidance, Navigation and Control (GNC) services. ... Read more »

Punxsutawney Phil predicts six more weeks of winter in US

Don’t put away those coats and mittens just yet, America. Punxsutawney Phil, the world’s furriest weather forecaster, is predicting six more weeks of winter. In an annual February 2 tradition, ... Read more »

Animal genomes: Chromosomes almost unchanged for over 600 million years

Animal diversity is fascinating, but how is this reflected in their genetic material, the genome? Is it possible to definitely distinguish animals from one another based on genetic information, and ... Read more »

Newly discovered asteroid just second of its kind

You may have heard of the Trojans, two vast swarms of asteroids that lead and trail Jupiter on its orbit around the Sun. But the king of the planets doesn’t ... Read more »

Did comet's fiery destruction lead to downfall of ancient Hopewell?

The rapid decline of the Hopewell culture about 1,500 years ago might be explained by falling debris from a near-Earth comet that created a devastating explosion over North America, laying ... Read more »

Even dying stars can still give birth to planets

Planets are usually not much older than the stars around which they revolve. Take the Sun: it was born 4.6 billion years ago, and not long after that, Earth came ... Read more »

Study shows 'shocking' way Earth's magnetic field produces plasma jets

Even though Earth’s magnetic field shields us from solar wind and space weather-it doesn’t always offer complete protection. Researchers have discovered a new mechanism in Earth’s space environment that can ... Read more »

China's solar research to get boost from satellite

China’s solar observation satellite has achieved some scientific and technological feats during its ongoing in-orbit trial operation, according to a space official. Zhao Jian, head of the China National Space ... Read more »

SpaceX scrubs launch of Italian satellite from Florida, will try again Friday

SpaceX on Thursday scrubbed its planned launch of an Italian Earth-observation satellite, the COSMO-SkyMed Second Generation 2 and said it plans to try again Friday. “Due to unfavorable weather, now ... Read more »

Lowell helps confirm second Earth Trojan

Supported by observations made with the 4.3-meter Lowell Discovery Telescope (LDT) in northern Arizona, an international team of scientists confirmed the existence of the second-known Earth Trojan Asteroid (ETA), 2020 ... Read more »

NASA details plan to deorbit International Space Station in 2031

NASA has released details of the International Space Station’s transition plan, including destruction of the structure in 2031, and research goals for the interim and the future. The ISS will ... Read more »

The universe much sharper in the picture with new algorithms and supercomputers

With new algorithms and supercomputers, an incredibly detailed radio map of the universe was created. Now astronomers can look at radio data of galaxies with much more precision. This was ... Read more »

Satellogic Announces Strategic Partnership With Palantir Technologies

Satellogic Inc., a leader in sub-meter resolution satellite imagery collection, has announced a new partnership with Palantir Technologies Inc. (NYSE:PLTR), a leading builder of operating systems for the modern enterprise. ... Read more »

Space Sustainability - It's Time for Action

His Royal Highness the Prince of Wales visited Astroscale’s ELSA-d Mission Control Centre this afternoon, to learn more from the first private company to demonstrate a vision for the safe ... Read more »

Scientists identify geological 'Goldilocks zone' for the formation of metal ore deposits

Scientists have identified a mechanism through which important metals, crucial to the manufacturing of renewable energy technologies, are passed from the Earth’s mantle to the crust. The team, including researchers ... Read more »

D-Orbit merges with Breeze Holdings Acquisition Corp. to become Publicly Company

D-Orbit S.p.A., an Italy-based and market leading space logistics and transportation company, has announced that it will become publicly listed through a business combination with Breeze Holdings Acquisition Corp. (NASDAQ: ... Read more »

SpaceX sucessfully launches Italian Earth-observation satellite

SpaceX successfully launched an Italian Earth-observation satellite, the COSMO-SkyMed Second Generation 2, from Florida after several days of setbacks. A Falcon 9 rocket mounted with the spacecraft lifted off at ... Read more »

NASA asteroid tracking system now capable of full sky search

The NASA-funded Asteroid Terrestrial-impact Last Alert System (ATLAS)-a state-of-the-art asteroid detection system operated by the University of Hawaii (UH) Institute for Astronomy (IfA) for the agency’s Planetary Defense Coordination Office ... Read more »

2D material in three dimensions

The carbon material graphene has no well-defined thickness, it merely consists of one single layer of atoms. It is therefore often referred to as a “two-dimensional material”. Trying to make ... Read more »

New funding to support sustainable future of space

The UK Space Agency is providing 1.7 million pounds for new projects to support sustainable space operations, Science Minister George Freeman announced Monday. The 13 new projects will help track ... Read more »

What the rise of oxygen on early Earth tells us about life on other planets

When did the Earth reach oxygen levels sufficient to support animal life? Researchers from McGill University have discovered that a rise in oxygen levels occurred in step with the evolution ... Read more »

Rocket Lab to provide Venture Class Launch Services for NASA

Rocket Lab has been selected by NASA as one of twelve companies to provide launch services for the agency’s Venture-Class Acquisition of Dedicated and Rideshare (VADR) missions, providing new opportunities ... Read more »

How NASA in Silicon Valley will use Webb Telescope to study distant worlds

NASA’s James Webb Space Telescope is getting ready to give us the best view yet of worlds beyond our own solar system, commonly known as exoplanets. Scientists at NASA’s Ames ... Read more »

ESA determines new 'space time'

Since November 2021, ESA’s satellites and ground stations have been running on a newly defined, incredibly precise “ESOC time”. Measured by two atomic clocks in the basement of the ESOC ... Read more »

Exoplanet has Earth-like layered atmosphere made of titanium gas

Scientists have discovered that a planet outside of the solar system may have a complex atmosphere made of metal gases that operate like Earth’s atmosphere. The research, published in the ... Read more »

In space race, Europe faces choice: passenger or pilot

As the race to send people to the Moon and beyond heats up, Europe faces calls to make a choice: Keep paying for seats on spacecraft or finally fly its ... Read more »

Astra Awarded VADR Contract by NASA

Astra Space, Inc. has been awarded of the Venture-Class Acquisition of Dedicated and Rideshare (VADR) Launch Services Indefinite Delivery/Indefinite Quantity (IDIQ) contract from the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) ... Read more »

New ISS National Laboratory tool expands visibility of ISS-related educational resources

The Center for the Advancement of Science in Space, Inc. (CASIS), manager of the International Space Station (ISS) National Laboratory, has announced the release of a new online tool for ... Read more »

NASA provides updated International Space Station Transition Plan

The International Space Station is a unique laboratory that is returning enormous scientific, educational, and technological developments to benefit people on Earth and is enabling our ability to travel into ... Read more »

When light loses symmetry, it can hold particles

Optical tweezers use light to immobilize microscopic particles as small as a single atom in 3D space. The basic principle behind optical tweezers is the momentum transfer between light and ... Read more »

Chinese satellite reportedly grappled, moved another spacecraft away from orbit

The event was discussed as part of a webinar on managing the risks of satellite close approaches in geostationary orbit, hosted by the Center for Strategic and International Studies and ... Read more »

China's cooperation with int'l space community fruitful

China has been engaged with the international space community over the past five years, yielding fruitful results in space science, technology and application, a Chinese official said Friday. China launched ... Read more »

Extreme exoplanet has a complex and exotic atmosphere

An international team including researchers from the University of Bern and the University of Geneva as well as the National Centre of Competence in Research (NCCR) PlanetS analyzed the atmosphere ... Read more »

China to improve space infrastructure with new satellites, technologies: white paper

China will continue to improve its space infrastructure, and integrate remote-sensing, communications, navigation, and positioning satellite technologies in the next five years, according to a white paper released on Friday. ... Read more »

China to boost satellite services, space technology application: white paper

China will continue to boost public services with satellites and promote the application and transfer of space technology in the next five years, according to a white paper on the ... Read more »

Shining a light on synthetic dimensions

Humans experience the world in three dimensions, but a collaboration in Japan has developed a way to create synthetic dimensions to better understand the fundamental laws of the Universe and ... Read more »