Renuncia del fiscal para Ayotzinapa, golpe para el caso

renuncia del fiscal para ayotzinapa, golpe para el caso

Familiares y compañeros de clases de los 43 estudiantes universitarios de Ayotzinapa desaparecidos marchan en la Ciudad de México el lunes 26 de septiembre de 2022, al cumplirse otro aniversario de la desaparición de los estudiantes en Iguala, Guerrero, en 2014. (Marco Ugarte / Associated Press)

La renuncia del fiscal encargado del caso de la desaparición de los 43 estudiantes en el sur de México en 2014 supone un golpe en la investigación del considerado oficialmente como “crimen de Estado”, justo cuando exfuncionarios y miembros del Ejército están bajo proceso judicial.

El presidente mexicano Andrés Manuel López Obrador anunció el martes la dimisión de Omar Gómez Trejo, encargado del la investigación desde 2019, por no estar de acuerdo con los procedimientos para determinar quiénes debían ser detenidos.

La Fiscalía General de la República (FGR) retiró órdenes de captura contra 21 personas, 16 de ellas militares y el resto exfuncionarios estatales, días después de que estas aprehensiones fueran solicitadas por la unidad de Gómez Trejo.

Pero, además, su unidad estaba siendo relegada en parte de sus competencias y tenía falta de personal desde agosto, lo que ha inquietado a este organismo y a los abogados de las víctimas que temen que los avances logrados para conocer la verdad y llevar a los responsables ante la justicia puedan verse gravemente afectados.

López Obrador respaldó la medida tomada la FGR, en cuyo seno reconoció que “hay diferencias”, pero garantizó que nadie va “a descarrilar la investigación” pese a que el gobierno está recibiendo “muchas presiones de todo tipo y de muchas partes”. No ofreció más detalles al respecto.

La CIDH, de la que depende el grupo de expertos internacionales que lleva investigando el caso desde 2015 y con el que trabajó Gómez Trejo durante la anterior administración, mostró su preocupación porque desde el mes pasado la unidad dirigida por el fiscal especial parecía no contar con el personal policial necesario para recabar pruebas, judicializar nuevos cargos y dar seguimiento a los procesos judiciales en curso.

En un comunicado divulgado el lunes, justo antes de conocerse la renuncia, pedía que se garantizara la independencia de dicho equipo y mostraba su preocupación por el desistimiento de las órdenes de captura, por los perjuicios de cambiar a los investigadores en casos complejos y por los obstáculos que genera la descoordinación en el desarrollo exitoso de las investigaciones.

El Centro Prodh, la ONG de derechos humanos que representa a los padres de los estudiantes, denunció el martes una “injerencia indebida de los superiores jerárquicos” de Gómez Trejo en su trabajo que es “en extremo preocupante para seguir adelante con el proceso de justicia”.

Karla Quintana, titular de la Comisión Nacional de Búsqueda de desaparecidos, que depende del gobierno federal, señaló vía Twitter que tal injerencia “viola” el derecho a la verdad y la justicia y subrayó que el trabajo de Gómez Trejo “representó de los poquísimos espacios de investigación independiente y seria” sobre violaciones a los derechos humanos en México.

La Comisión de la Verdad presentó en agosto un informe que aportaba importantes avances sobre los presuntos involucrados tanto en la desaparición de los estudiantes, entre los que apuntaba a militares, como en el ocultamiento posterior de los hechos, en el que participaron altos funcionarios de la administración de Enrique Peña Nieto (2012-2018).

Justo después fueron anunciadas 80 órdenes de captura, parte de las cuales son las que fueron retiradas. Se detuvo a tres miembros del Ejército, entre ellos uno de los mandos Iguala en aquel momento y actual general retirado, y el ex procurador general de la República, Jesús Murillo Karam.

Todos están actualmente bajo proceso penal y en prisión preventiva aunque sus respectivas defensas alegan que no hay pruebas sólidas contra ellos y han apelado.

En el caso de Murillo Karam, llamó la atención que en su primera audiencia, clave para que su procesamiento por tortura, desaparición forzada y obstrucción a la justicia fuera sólido, no estuviera presente la unidad de Gómez Trejo y hasta el juez amonestara a los ministerios públicos por no estar preparados.

Los padres de los estudiantes, en su manifiesto por el octavo aniversario de las desapariciones, denunciaron que pese a esos avances, hay retrocesos por “guerras internas” dentro de una administración que “sucumbe al poder militar”.

Varias de las familias pidieron, además, la dimisión del fiscal general, Alejandro Gertz Manero, cuyo compromiso con los derechos humanos ha sido cuestionado por diversas organizaciones nacionales e internacionales.

El presidente López Obrador mantuvo su total respaldo al fiscal general aunque en el informe de la Comisión de la Verdad, que es también un organismo oficial, se denunciaron problemas de coordinación dentro de ese departamento.

El mandatario insistió el martes en que quienes critican la actuación de las autoridades mexicanas quieren debilitar las instituciones. La víspera se pronunció de forma similar contra quienes atacan al Ejército ya que, en su opinión, sólo unos pocos tuvieron responsabilidad en la desaparición de los estudiantes y serán procesados por ello.

Hay cuatro militares encarcelados por el caso, entre ellos quien, según el presidente de la Comisión de la Verdad Alejandro Encinas, habría presuntamente ordenado matar a algunos de los muchachos. El informe de esta entidad, parcialmente tachado, apuntaba a que soldados manipularon y escondieron presuntos restos de los estudiantes en instalaciones militares de Iguala, en el estado de Guerrero.

Los abogados de los militares anunciaron el martes que estudian acciones legales contra Encinas.

Estudiantes de la Normal Rural de Ayotzinapa acudieron a esa ciudad de Guerrero el 26 de septiembre de 2014 a tomar autobuses para usarlos en protestas cuando fueron atacados por distintas fuerzas de seguridad y autoridades coludidas con el crimen organizado. No está claro el móvil, pero se ha afianzado la idea de que uno de los autobuses que se llevaron estaba vinculado al tráfico de heroína.

Se desconoce todavía qué pasó realmente con los jóvenes. Se presume que todos fueron asesinados pero sólo se han encontrado restos de tres de ellos porque durante el gobierno anterior hubo toda una estrategia de ocultamiento para crear una verdad paralela a base de torturas y manipulación de pruebas, según confirmó la actual administración.

Este artículo fue publicado por primera vez en Los Angeles Times en Español.

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