Neun Bundesräte für mehr Demokratie

Der Nationalrat will die Landesregierung vergrössern. Die Idee ist alt – aber sie war noch nie so aktuell wie heute.

Neun Bundesräte für mehr Demokratie
© Foto: Keystone Von sieben auf neun? Die Mehrheit des Nationalrats will den Bundesrat aufstocken.

Vielleicht zeigt man das Problem am besten anhand von zwei Zahlen: 85 und 69.

85 Prozent: Das war der kombinierte Wähleranteil der vier grössten Parteien, als diese sich 1959 auf die sogenannte Zauberformel für den Bundesrat einigten. Es ist ein Hinterzimmerdeal, der die Kräfteverhältnisse einer vergangenen Zeit abbildet, aber noch heute massgebend ist: Die drei grössten Parteien erhalten je zwei Sitze, die viertgrösste einen Sitz.

Mit der Zauberformel fand das Parlament damals einen Weg, um die Machtansprüche der traditionellen Volksparteien zu befriedigen. Und es fand einen Weg, um in der Regierung den Wählerwillen der allermeisten Schweizerinnen und Schweizer abzubilden. Seither ist der Wähleranteil der vier grössten Parteien aber dramatisch geschrumpft: auf noch 69 Prozent.

Fast ein Drittel nicht repräsentiert

Das heisst: Heute wählt fast ein Drittel der Schweizerinnen und Schweizer Parteien, die im Bundesrat nicht vertreten sind. Das ist ein demokratischer Missstand. Es wird immer schwieriger, zu begründen, warum Parteien wie die FDP und die SP je zwei Bundesratsmitglieder stellen sollen, während etwa die nur unwesentlich kleineren Grünen aussen vor bleiben.

Es ist unter anderem dieses Argument, das eine Mehrheit des Nationalrats am Montag dazu bewog, einem Vorstoss zuzustimmen, der eine Reform des Bundesrats verlangt. Demnach soll die Regierung von sieben auf neun Mitglieder aufgestockt werden. Der Vorstoss stammt von SP-Nationalrätin Nadine Masshardt, wurde aber von Vertretern aller Parteien ausser der SVP unterstützt.

In Zeiten, in denen das Vertrauen in die Politik schwindet, ist es noch wichtiger geworden, dieses Vertrauen zu stärken.

Das Anliegen geht nun in den strukturkonservativen Ständerat, wo es auf grossen Widerstand stossen dürfte. Seit der Gründung des Bundesstaats gab es bereits zwölf Anläufe, die Landesregierung zu vergrössern. Sie führten allesamt nirgendshin.

Trotzdem verdient der neueste Vorstoss eine Debatte. Es geht dabei auch um Feinstoffliches: In Zeiten, in denen das Vertrauen in die Politik in breiten Teilen der Bevölkerung schwindet, ist es noch wichtiger geworden, dieses Vertrauen zu stärken. Dazu gehört, das politische System immer wieder auf seine Fähigkeit zu überprüfen, die Bürgerinnen und Bürger möglichst gut zu repräsentieren. Der Bundesrat ist ein entscheidender Teil dieses Systems.

Der berechtigte Anspruch der Tessiner

Mindestens so wichtig wie die – wohl für immer – veränderte Parteienlandschaft ist die Berücksichtigung der Sprachregionen. Mit dem Tessiner Ignazio Cassis sind die italienischsprachigen Schweizerinnen und Schweizer zwar derzeit im Bundesrat vertreten, doch wann immer seine Amtszeit endet, dürfte der Südkanton den Sitz wieder verlieren. Die berechtigte Klage der italienischen Schweiz wird nur mit dem garantierten Anspruch auf einen ständigen Sitz in der Landesregierung verstummen.

Natürlich wirft eine Vergrösserung der Regierung neue Fragen auf. In einem Neunergremium wäre die Arbeitslast zwar besser verteilt. Der Aufwand für Absprachen würde aber steigen. Und die Koalitionsbildung in einem Bundesrat mit fünf oder gar sechs Parteien dürfte unberechenbarer werden. Darum müsste eine Aufstockung wohl mit einer Stärkung des Bundespräsidiums verbunden sein.

Über all dies lässt sich streiten, über all dies sollten wir streiten. Aber ziemlich sicher würden neun Bundesrätinnen und Bundesräte das Land und seine Bevölkerung viel besser abbilden als heute. Und damit wäre schon viel gewonnen.

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