Nasal vaccines could limit future variant threats: Dr Akiko Iwasaki, professor of immunobiology at Yale University

Nasal vaccines could limit future variant threats: Dr Akiko Iwasaki, professor of immunobiology at Yale University
© Provided by Hindustan Times Professor of immunobiology at Yale University, Dr Akiko Iwasaki, speaks at the Hindustan Times Leadership Summit. (ht photo)

Nasal vaccines could be the breakthrough the world needs for lasting protection against Covid-19, potentially limiting the risk from new variants of Sars-CoV-2 because of the way they act, one of the world’s top immunologists said during the Hindustan Times Leadership Summit on Tuesday.

Dr Akiko Iwasaki, professor of immunobiology at Yale University, was speaking during the session on Covid-19 on the first day of the summit, and offered several insights on where the focus needs to be to contain the key threats from Covid-19.

“How do we ever stop having to vaccinate every so often? That is a question that my lab and others in the field have been tackling. One of the ways is through mucosal vaccines,” she said, in a conversation with health communications specialist Sanchita Sharma.

“Mucosal vaccines provide local protection, which is much more resilient against different mutations that occur within the virus. This is because mucosal immunity produces antibodies known as IgA, which coats the mucous lining,” she said, before explaining it with an analogy: “It is like having guards outside your home, versus guards placed inside the door.”

At present, all approved vaccines are developed intramuscularly, which Iwasaki said prompts systemic immunity.

Iwasaki outlined three important steps that should be taken to head off the threat from future variants:

First, there needs to be better genomic surveillance. “Global genome surveillance effort is important because we don’t know where the new variants will come from,” she said.

Second, the focus must turn to regions with low vaccination coverage. “And as the world becomes more and more vaccinated, new variants are likely to emerge from regions that are under-vaccinated, because we still need transmission of the virus to develop mutants,” she added.

Third, people with compromised immunity need therapies. “The other kind of things we need to worry about is to protect the immunocompromised. They often have long-term infections, which can aid in the accumulation of these mutations. We need to implement monoclonal antibodies and antivirals to protect these individuals,” she said.

Iwasaki said her team at Yale and others in the scientific community are trying to uncover further clues about how the virus works, which could in turn be used for future therapies.

Among these is the discovery of an RNA molecule that Iwasaki’s team reported in early November.

The molecule, known as SLR14, jump-starts the immune system and is simple to manufacture. It works by triggering the production of interferons, a group of proteins key to the body’s initial response to infection.

How the immune system reacts has been a particular area of study for the Iwasaki lab, which answers why some people have severe disease while others could have no or just mild symptoms, as well as the wide variety of long Covid symptoms that have been seen.

Iwasaki said long Covid is a serious issue, affecting close to 10-30% of the people infected. “There is still not a universal definition. It is possible even for asymptomatic infection to lead to long Covid symptoms.”

The immunologist explained there are “two paths to get to long Covid-19”: One is in the case of people who develop severe symptoms and require hospitalisation. “These are mostly male and older patient. Around 50-70% of this population, which has severe disease and hospitalisation, may have long Covid,” she said.

The second way these develop is in a group of patients that is predominantly women of middle age. “There are over 200 symptoms of long Covid – brain fog, shortness of breath, neuro symptoms, hair loss, skin rash. We are currently trying to understand the sex differences in long Covid and underlying mechanisms,” she said.

Sign on to read the HT ePaper

News Related


Bigg Boss 15 Day 112 Written Update: Devoleena Bhattacharjee and Abhijit Bichukale evicted from the house

Bigg Boss 15 is in the last leg of the show and the makers are doing their best to pique the audience’s interest. Just few days ahead of the finale ... Read more »

Sumanth's Malli Modalaindi to premiere on OTT platform on February 11

© Provided by Pinkvilla Telugu actor Akkineni Sumanth will be seen next in an upcoming romantic comedy film titled Malli Modalaindi. The makers today took to Twitter and announced that ... Read more »

Axis Bank gains as lender's Q3 profit zooms three-fold, beats estimates

NEW DELHI – Shares of Axis Bank climbed 1.6 per cent in early trade Tuesday as the private lender’s consolidated net profit for the December quarter zoomed nearly three-fold to ... Read more »

Two killed, dozens injured as 2 earthquakes shake southwest Haiti

© Provided by The Financial Express A magnitude 5.3 quake at 8:16 am (1316 GMT) was followed by a magnitude 5.1 quake nearly an hour later. (Representational image: AP) Two ... Read more »

Not KL Rahul, Rohit Sharma; Shane Warne Admits His First Choice as India's Test Captain Would Have Been Ajinkya Rahane

© Ankit Banerjee | Sports Desk Shane Warne on India’s Next Test Captain @Twitter New Delhi: Once Virat Kohli resigned as India’s Test skipper following the loss in the ... Read more »

Freefall! Sensex slips below 57,000 as bears show no mercy

NEW DELHI: The bears showed no mercy on Tuesday, as bloodbath continued on Dalal Street, ahead of the two-day Fed policy review starting later in the day. Sensex plunged over ... Read more »

Pakistan government asks Shehbaz Sharif to provide medical reports of Nawaz Sharif within 10 days

© Provided by The Statesman Pakistan government asks Shehbaz Sharif to provide medical reports of Nawaz Sharif within 10 days The Imran Khan-led Pakistan government has asked the Leader of ... Read more »

DNA Special: Covid-19 pandemic affecting mental development of children?

© Provided by DNA More than 100 crore children around the world were going to school until two years ago. But when the pandemic struck, governments first closed schools with ... Read more »

Kerala HC holds night hearing for the first time, stops ship from leaving Kochi

Kerala HC holds night hearing for the first time, stops ship from leaving Kochi The Kerala High Court, in a first in the court’s history, held an urgent sitting late ... Read more »

I'm a midwife – we don't care if you've shaved or not, but here are the things to AVOID in the delivery room

AS your due date approaches a mix of emotions can wash over you and despite all your planning it's sometimes hard not to feel unprepared – especially if it's your ... Read more »

RTE Crimes and Confessions viewers glued to final episode as Kerry Babies scandal gets spotlight

RTE finished up it’s Crimes and Confessions series on Monday night by putting a spotlight one of the most controversial cases in Irish history. The Kerry Babies. For those of ... Read more »

‘Jenama Abah' tak mampu tawan Johor, PAS nak ‘tumpang' pengaruh Umno, kata penganalisis

© Provided by Free Malaysia Today PAS sedar parti itu ‘sangat lemah’ di Johor dan tidak mahu episod buruk pada PRN Melaka berulang, kata penganalisis politik. (Gambar Bernama) PETALING JAYA: ... Read more »

Man City transfer round-up: Erling Haaland move 'so close' as summer plans emerge

Manchester City icon Shaun Goater says he is “trying his best” to convince Erling Haaland to join the club. Goater, who played alongside Haaland’s dad Alf Inge for City, has ... Read more »

Logitech reports 2% decline in quarterly sales; raises outlook

© Reuters/DADO RUVIC Logitech mouse is placed on the keyboard in the computer shop in Zenica (Reuters) -Logitech International reported a 2% drop in third-quarter sales as the computer peripherals-maker ... Read more »

Rohit Sharma's Transformation Ahead of West Indies Series Will Give You Fitness Goals | PICS

© Ankit Banerjee | Sports Desk Rohit Sharma Transformation Mumbai: One problem that has bothered the newly-appointed India’s white-ball captain Rohit Sharma is his fitness. Without a doubt, Rohit ... Read more »

Batgirl: Ivory Aquino to play first trans character in a live-action DC film

© Provided by WION A new cast addition has been announced for ‘Batgirl’ as Ivory Aquino joins the superhero film. She will join previously announced cast members including Leslie Grace, ... Read more »

Uttar Pradesh becomes first state to administer 25 crore Covid vaccine doses

Uttar Pradesh has become the first state in India to have administered more than 25 crore doses of Covid vaccines. Nearly 25.05 crore out of total 162.7 crore doses administered ... Read more »

Steelers targeting former Seahawks, Cowboys staffer as defensive coordinator

© Provided by Fansided In search of a new defensive coordinator, the Pittsburgh Steelers have reportedly reached out to Kris Richard for an interview. Following their elimination in the Wild ... Read more »

Steelers request permission to interview Saints' Kris Richard for DC job

© Matthew Emmons-USA TODAY Sports Kris Richard was the passing game coordinator and defensive play-caller with the Cowboys from 2018-19. We’ve got another candidate for the Steelers defensive coordinator vacancy. ... Read more »

20 Minuten gibts jetzt auch auf Albanisch

Neu kannst du in den Spracheinstellungen der 20-Minuten-App Albanisch auswählen. Weitere Sprachen werden schon kommende Woche folgen. Hier gehts zum Text auf Albanisch. Ist Deutsch nicht deine Muttersprache und findest ... Read more »

WATCH! Siddhant Chaurvedi lends freezing Ananya Panday his blazer during 'Gehraiyaan' promotions, wins the internet

© Provided by DNA The promotions of the upcoming Amazon Prime Video film ‘Gehraiyaan’, directed by Shakun Batra and starring Deepika Padukone, Siddhant Chaturvedi, Dhairya Karwa and Ananya Panday are ... Read more »

Priyanka Chopra to be replaced in Alia Bhatt-Katrina Kaif starrer Jee Le Zara after embracing motherhood?

© Provided by Priyanka Chopra and Nick Jonas announced that they have welcomed a baby via surrogacy on Friday. The two lovebirds had kept the whole thing a secret ... Read more »

House Committee on Ethics opening reviews of two lawmakers

A nonpartisan House panel has called on two lawmakers to face a broader ethics investigation after allegations emerged of improper use of federal resources. © Getty Images The House Committee ... Read more »

Republic Day 2022: From Lata Mangeshkar's Aye Mere Watan to AR Rahman's Maa Tujhe Salaam, 7 patriotic songs you must listen to this Gantantra Diwas

© Provided by India is celebrating its 73rd Republic Day this year on January 26. As you might be aware, it was on this day in 1950 when the ... Read more »

Karan Johar takes to Koo to spread awareness about voting rights

© Provided by Jagran English New Delhi | Jagran News Desk: Bollywood filmmaker and actor Karan Johar takes to Koo to spread awareness about voting rights on the occasion of ... Read more »

Steelers Reportedly Interviewing 2 Coaches To Replace Longtime Assistant

© Provided by The Spun A general view of the Pittsburgh Steelers stadium. The Pittsburgh Steelers are in need of a new defensive coordinator after longtime assistant Keith Butler announced ... Read more »

Kartik Aaryan threatened to quit 'Shehzada', 'Ala Vaikunthapurramuloo' producer reveals why

© Provided by DNA After the blockbuster success of ‘Pushpa: The Rise’, the Hindi dubbed version of Allu Arjun-starrer superhit film ‘Ala Vaikunthapurramuloo’ was supposed to release theatrically on 26 ... Read more »

Man who shot 2 NYPD officers, killing 1, has died

The Associated PressThis photo combo of images provided by the New York City Police Department shows NYPD Officers Wilbert Mora, left, and Jason Rivera. The two officers were shot while ... Read more »

Andy Reid questions NFL's OT rules that helped Chiefs in thrilling win

Even the winning coach, in this case Andy Reid, is questioning the NFL’s overtime setup. One day after Reid’s Chiefs won the OT coin toss, then marched downfield for Travis ... Read more »

23 Australians on ship delivering aid to Tonga have virus

The Associated PressIn this photo released by the Tonga Red Cross Society, Red Cross teams set up a temporary shelter in Kanokupolu, western Tongatapu, Friday, Jan. 21, 2022, as the ... Read more »

Batting firepower makes Multan Sultans favourites again

© PSL Multan Sultans made a stirring run to the title in the second half of last year’s PSL © PSL Multan Sultans Captain: Muhammad Rizwan Coach: Andy Flower Full squad: Muhammad Rizwan ... Read more »

LG Manoj Sinha announces 15% quota for women in non-gazetted posts in J K Police

LG Manoj Sinha announces 15% quota for women in non-gazetted posts in J&K Police Lieutenant Governor Manoj Sinha has announced a 15 per cent reservation for women in non-gazetted posts ... Read more »

Dot Balls And Running Between The Wickets Should be Addressed For The ICC Women's World Cup: Shubhangi Kulkarni

© Provided by News18 Dot Balls And Running Between The Wickets Should be Addressed For The ICC Women’s World Cup: Shubhangi Kulkarni Women’s s cricket in India would look to ... Read more »

Delhi reduces 'dry days' to only three this year from 21 - All you need to know

© Provided by DNA Under its new excise policy, the Delhi government has reduced the number of dry days to just three from 21 days last year, as per official order issued ... Read more »

Happy Republic Day 2022: Wishes, Images, Status, Quotes, Messages and WhatsApp Greetings to Share in English and Hindi

Happy Republic Day 2022 Wishes Images, Quotes, Status, Messages, Photos: India celebrates Republic Day annually on January 26. As you mark the national holiday with your loved ones and watch ... Read more »

Anushka Sharma fans come out in her support over cricketer Shoaib Akhtar's 'Virat shouldn't have married' remark - read tweets

© Provided by Anushka Sharma and Virat Kohli’s love story has been a talking point since its inception. The actress has often been the centre of all the negative ... Read more »

Opinion | Why India needs to think twice before pulling out its soldiers from Siachen

© Provided by Firstpost Opinion | Why India needs to think twice before pulling out its soldiers from Siachen The Siachen glacier is called the highest battlefield on the earth, ... Read more »

Asian markets tumble as volatility sweeps globe ahead of Fed meeting

© POOL Traders will be hanging on every word by Federal Reserve boss Jerome Powell when he holds a new conference after the bank’s policy meeting this week Asian markets ... Read more »

Ukraine crisis: Achieved total unity, says Biden after meeting with European leaders

© Provided by The Statesman Ukraine crisis: Achieved total unity, says Biden after meeting with European leaders US President Joe Biden said his virtual meeting with European leaders on the ... Read more »

Yogi gets Kairana's vote on law & order, but residents want netas to talk jobs not ‘exodus'

Kairana: Once famed as the birthplace of a renowned school of Hindustani music and an industrial town, now under a cloud of communal politics and unemployment, Kairana was Union Home ... Read more »
On you will find lots of free English exam practice materials to help you improve your English skills: grammar, listening, reading, writing, ielts, toeic