Más de 194.000 rusos huyen para evadir reclutamiento

más de 194.000 rusos huyen para evadir reclutamiento

Rusos hacen fila para obtener un Número de Identificación Personal en Almaty, Kazajistán, martes 27 de setiembre de 2022. Muchos rusos huyen tras la orden del presidente Vladimir Putin de reforzar sus tropas en Ucrania. (Vladimir Tretyakov / Associated Press)

Vsevolod viajó cuatro días en auto desde Moscú hasta la frontera de Rusia con Georgia. En un punto tuvo que abandonar el automóvil y continuar a pie.

El martes, finalmente terminó su viaje de 1.800 kilómetros (1.100 millas) y cruzó la frontera para evitar que lo llamaran a combatir en la guerra de Ucrania.

“Con 26 años, no quiero que me lleven a casa en un ataúd o manchar mis manos con la sangre de alguien por la guerra de una persona que quiere construir un imperio”, dijo a The Associated Press, pidiendo que no se mencionara su apellido por temor a las represalias de Rusia.

Es uno de los más de 194.000 ciudadanos rusos que han huido a Georgia, Kazajistán y Finlandia —la mayoría de las veces en coche, en bicicleta o a pie— en la semana que ha transcurrido desde que el presidente Vladimir Putin anunció una movilización parcial de reservistas.

El éxodo masivo de hombres —solos o con sus familias o amigos— comenzó el 21 de septiembre, poco después de que Putin pronunciara su discurso a la nación, y continuó toda esta semana.

Al principio compraron boletos de avión, que subieron de precio en las pocas aerolíneas que aún volaban desde Rusia. Pero el resto tuvo que llenar el tanque de sus coches y unirse a las largas filas en las carreteras hacia las fronteras.

Según el servicio en línea Yandex Maps, el congestionamiento vial que conduce a Verkhny Lars, un paso fronterizo hacia Georgia desde la región rusa de Osetia del Norte, se extendía el martes por unos 15 kilómetros (más de 9 millas).

Las redes sociales mostraban a cientos de peatones haciendo fila en el puesto de control después de que los guardias fronterizos rusos flexibilizaran las normas y permitieran el cruce a pie.

También se registraron enormes filas en algunos cruces hacia Kazajistán.

El ministerio del Interior de Georgia dijo que más de 53.000 rusos han entrado en el país desde la semana pasada, mientras que sus homólogos de Kazajistán afirmaron que 98.000 cruzaron a esa nación. La Guardia Fronteriza finlandesa indicó que habían llegado más de 43.000 en el mismo periodo. Los medios de comunicación también informaron que otros 3.000 rusos entraron en Mongolia, con el que también comparte frontera.

Las autoridades rusas buscaron detener el flujo, impidiendo la salida de algunos hombres y alegando las leyes de movilización. La práctica no parecía generalizada, pero persistían los rumores de que Moscú podría cerrar pronto las fronteras a todos los hombres en edad militar.

La policía de Osetia del Norte dijo que se instalaría una oficina de reclutamiento en el cruce de Verkhny Lars, y los funcionarios locales confirmaron a la agencia de noticias estatal Tass que se están entregando órdenes de reclutamiento a hombres rusos en los cruces hacia Georgia.

El ministro de Defensa ruso, Sergei Shoigu, ha dicho que sólo se convocarían a unos 300.000 hombres con experiencia en combate u otro tipo de servicio militar, pero hay reportes de varias regiones rusas de que los reclutadores convocan a hombres que no cumplen esa descripción. Eso ha generado temores de una movilización mucho más amplia, y multitudes de hombres de todas las edades y orígenes se han dirigido a aeropuertos y cruces fronterizos.

“Existe el riesgo de que anuncien una movilización completa”, según un residente de San Petersburgo que llegó a Kazajistán el martes. El hombre, que declinó dar su nombre porque temía por su seguridad, dijo a la AP que pasó tres días conduciendo desde su casa hasta Uralsk, en el noroeste de Kazajistán, cerca de la frontera.

Dijo que las declaraciones de Putin sobre la movilización diferían de lo que decía su decreto, dejando lugar a una interpretación más amplia. “A la gente le preocupa que, tarde o temprano, se anuncie una movilización completa y nadie pueda cruzar las fronteras”, comentó.

Kazajistán y Georgia, ambos pertenecientes a la antigua Unión Soviética y que permiten la entrada sin visado a los ciudadanos rusos, parecen ser los destinos más solicitados por quienes viajan por tierra para huir del reclutamiento. Finlandia y Noruega exigen visa.

Georgia, cuyo apoyo a Ucrania es visible por las banderas amarillas y azules que adornan los edificios, así como por los grafitis contra Putin y Rusia, se ha mostrado con cierto recelo ante la afluencia de rusos, sobre todo después de que el país librara una breve guerra con Moscú en 2008.

Los políticos de la oposición han exigido al gobierno que tome medidas drásticas contra los rusos que llegan, desde introducir visados hasta prohibirles la entrada por completo. Todavía no se ha tomado ninguna medida de este tipo.

Kazajistán parece ser más acogedor. Desde el comienzo de la guerra, la nación centroasiática de 19 millones de habitantes ha tomado una dirección cada vez más independiente de su aliado, Moscú, en especial en lo que respecta a la guerra de Ucrania.

Al anunciar el número de rusos que cruzaban la frontera, el ministro del Interior kazajo, Marat Akhmetzhanov, dijo que no se les enviará de regreso, salvo en el caso de que se encuentren en una lista internacional de personas buscadas bajo acusaciones criminales.

El presidente Kassym-Jomart Tokayev ordenó a su gobierno que ayude a los rusos que entran a su país “debido a la desesperada situación actual”.

“Debemos cuidarlos y garantizar su seguridad. Es un problema político y humanitario. Ordené al gobierno que tome las medidas necesarias”, dijo Tokayev, y añadió que Kazajistán discutirá la situación con Moscú.

En Uralsk, los voluntarios ayudaban a los que entraban en la ciudad de 236.000 habitantes. Algunos de ellos dijeron a la AP que estaban sirviendo comidas calientes gratuitas y ayudando a los que llegaban a encontrar alojamiento. Los que no encontraban departamentos o habitaciones de hotel podían pasar la noche en gimnasios, indicó un voluntario.

Dilara Mujambetova, directora del teatro Cinema Park, incluso afirmó que los rusos que llegaban podían dormir en sus instalaciones luego de que recorrió la ciudad y vio que había mucha gente que parecía perdida.

“Dejamos libre un auditorio, se encargó té y los voluntarios trajeron comida caliente”, dijo Mujambetova según los medios de comunicación locales. “Llenamos cuatro auditorios; unas 200 personas en total”.

___

La periodista de The Associated Press Sophiko Megrelidze contribuyó desde Tiflis, Georgia.

Este artículo fue publicado por primera vez en Los Angeles Times en Español.

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