Länder, die sich ständig am Abgrund bewegen

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Die politischen Wirren in Burkina Faso sind Symptome einer Krise, die sich über den Gürtel der Sahelzone erstreckt. Immer wieder geht es um Mali, das am Zerfallen ist.

Länder, die sich ständig am Abgrund bewegen
© Foto: Keystone Unklare Lage in Burkina Faso: Soldaten ausserhalb einer Armeebasis am Sonntag in Ouagadougou.

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Burkina Faso hat es ins Viertelfinale des Afrika-Cups geschafft, was der Torhüter des Landes am Sonntagabend mit einem spektakulären fünffachen Flickflack auf dem Platz feierte. Die Freude über den Fussball steht allerdings in bizarrem Kontrast zu den politischen Wirren, die den westafrikanischen Staat niederdrücken und Zukunftsängste schüren, nicht nur bei den Bewohnern von Ouagadougou, sondern im ganzen Land und weit über dessen Grenzen hinaus.

Vor sechs Jahren noch schien eine Demokratisierung möglich. Burkina Faso hatte die Langzeitdiktatur von Blaise Compaoré überwunden, doch nun gerät der Staat ins Wanken, Meutereien in Kasernen lassen darauf schliessen, dass auch hier ein Putsch begonnen hat und der Präsident die Macht verlieren könnte, die Lage blieb zunächst unübersichtlich.

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Die Wirrnisse in Burkina Faso sind Symptome einer Krise, die sich über den Gürtel der Sahelzone erstreckt, jenen klimatisch sehr fragilen Streifen, der die Sahara vom tropischen Afrika trennt. Es sind Länder, die sich mehr oder weniger nahe am Abgrund bewegen, die Gewalt im sudanesischen Darfur ist wieder aufgeflammt, Spannungen in Tschad sind nicht bewältigt. Die Rebellion von Boko Haram drückt den Norden Nigerias seit Jahren nieder.

Und immer wieder Mali: Ein Land, das einmal vielen als afrikanische Musterdemokratie galt, zerfällt. Die Bevölkerung kann trotz der Präsenz von französischen Soldaten und UNO-Truppen blutigen Auseinandersetzungen zwischen mörderischen Milizen und oft gnadenlosen Armeeeinheiten kaum entkommen. Nun sollen es russische Söldner richten, gerufen von der Putschregierung in Bamako. Aber wer hier eigentlich noch wen beschützt oder bedroht, das ist in den unübersichtlichen Weiten der Halbwüste schwer zu erfassen.

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Riskanter politischer Treibsand

Am Schicksal der französischen Elitetruppen im Sahel lässt sich ganz gut erkennen, wie riskant der politische Treibsand für dort intervenierende Mächte ist. Anfangs wurden die Franzosen in Mali als Retter bejubelt, doch ihr Ruf hat gelitten, nun gilt er als zweifelhaft bis ruiniert. Ja, sie haben Kommandanten der Jihadisten ausgeschaltet, einen nach dem anderen. Frankreich feierte in Mali regelmässig militärische Erfolge gegen islamistische Milizen.

Doch es hat auch zahlreiche Soldaten verloren und muss sich fragen lassen, was das alles bringt, wenn es nicht zugleich gelingt, alle Bevölkerungsgruppen in einen Friedensprozess einzubinden, der die Basis für einen stabilen Staat legen könnte.

Sind europäische Soldaten im Sahel die ersehnte Feuerwehr – oder doch eher unfreiwillige Brandbeschleuniger?

Die bittere Botschaft, die häufig übersehen wird, lautet leider: Viele Menschen in den Dörfern der Sahelstaaten haben ihren eigenen Staat und dessen Armee als brutal, korrupt und unzuverlässig erlebt. Und womöglich muss sich Europa an den Gedanken gewöhnen, dass diese Länder gar nicht anders können, als mit islamistischen Gruppen zu verhandeln, wollen sie jemals dem Krieg entkommen.

Europas doppeltes (und eigennütziges) Ziel im Sahel ist rasch formuliert: Der Norden will vermeiden, dass die Flüchtlingsströme aus Afrika zunehmen. Und er will islamistische Gruppen ausschalten, die Anschläge jenseits des Mittelmeers verüben könnten. Dafür schicken europäische Länder wie Frankreich Soldaten nach Afrika.

Aber die entscheidende Frage lautet: Sind sie die ersehnte Feuerwehr – oder doch eher unfreiwillige Brandbeschleuniger? Alle, die nun bald über Mandate europäischer Soldaten in unübersichtlichem Terrain entscheiden, sollten darauf eine Antwort suchen.

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