Justizinitiative scheitert am Volks- und am Ständemehr

Justizinitiative scheitert am Volks- und am Ständemehr
© KEYSTONE/LUKAS LEHMANN

Ein Losverfahren für die Wahl ans Bundesgericht hat bei Volk und Ständen keinen Anklang gefunden. Hochrechnungen gehen für die Justizinitiative von einem Nein-Anteil von 68 Prozent aus. Das Ständemehr kann auch nicht mehr erreicht werden.

Keiner der bisher ausgezählten Kantone stimmte dem Begehren zu. Im Kanton Jura lag der Ja-Anteil mit 37,5 Prozent noch am höchsten. Nur vier der um 14.30 Uhr ausgewiesenen Gemeinden sagten Ja, wie die Nachrichtenagentur Keystone-SDA errechnet hat.

Damit bleibt grundsätzlich alles beim Alten: Weiterhin wählt das Parlament alle sechs Jahre die Bundesrichterinnen und -richter. Wahlvorschläge macht die Gerichtskommission der Räte. In den Augen der Initianten und Initiantinnen beeinträchtigt dieses Wahlverfahren die richterliche Unabhängigkeit.

Mit der Volksinitiative “Bestimmung der Bundesrichterinnen und Bundesrichter im Losverfahren (Justizinitiative)” hätten sie darum ein neues Wahlverfahren per Los einführen wollen. Wer an der Auslosung teilnehmen darf, hätte eine unabhängige Fachkommission entscheiden müssen.

Die vom Bundesrat eingesetzte Kommission hätte Personen auswählen müssen, die sich fachlich und persönlich für das Richteramt eignen. Die Amtssprachen sollten gemäss Initiativtext angemessen vertreten sein. Weitere Vorgaben zum Verfahren wären erst auf Gesetzesebene bestimmt worden.

Kein Systemwechsel angezeigt

Dies ging den meisten zu weit. Gegen die Initiative hatten sich Bundesrat, Parlament und die Kantone ausgesprochen sowie sämtliche Parteien ausser der Piratenpartei. In den letzten Abstimmungsumfragen von Tamedia und gfs.bern im Auftrag der SRG hatten 37 respektive 41 Prozent die Initiative unterstützt.

Ein Losverfahren für Richterwahlen gefährde die demokratische Legitimität der Richter, lautete der Tenor der Gegner. Im lauen Abstimmungskampf war von “Casino”, “Lotterie” und Ähnlichem zu hören.

Zudem gaben die Gegner zu bedenken, dass das bestehende System funktioniere. Das Parlament achte auf eine ausgewogene Besetzung des Bundesgerichts nach Geschlecht, Sprache und politischer Weltanschauungen. Der sogenannte Parteienproporz funktioniere. Das vom Volk gewählte Parlament repräsentiere den Volkswillen.

Zweifel an politischer Unabhängigkeit

Die unterlegenen Initianten sahen das anders: In der Schweiz gebe es heute keine Gewaltentrennung, kritisierten sie. Ein Richter oder eine Richterin müsse einer Partei angehören und dieser jährlich eine Mandatssteuer bezahlen, damit er oder sie das Amt bekomme. Damit werde die Judikative zum verlängerten Arm der Legislative.

Mit der Abschaffung der Wiederwahl von Richterinnen und Richtern hätten die Initianten zusätzlich verhindern wollen, dass das Parlament durch Abwahldrohungen politischen Druck auf die Justiz ausüben kann.

Der Kopf hinter dem Volksbegehren war der Zuger Unternehmer Adrian Gasser. Er und sein Team hatten Mitte 2019 die Initiative mit 130’100 gültigen Unterschriften eingereicht.

Kleinere Reformen auf dem Weg

Trotz des Neins zur Initiative zeichnet sich allerdings ab, dass das Wahlverfahren für Bundesrichter einer sanften Reform unterzogen wird. Die Rechtskommission des Ständerats will, dass die Gerichtskommission zur Begleitung ihrer Auswahlverfahren künftig einen Fachbeirat einsetzen und beiziehen kann. Mit der entsprechenden parlamentarischen Initiative befasst sich als nächstes die Nationalratskommission.

Zudem hat die parlamentarische Gerichtskommission kürzlich beschlossen, die bisherige Praxis zu überprüfen und neu allenfalls auch Parteilose als Bundesrichterinnen oder -richter zu nominieren. Und theoretisch könnte dieses Gremium beispielsweise auch ohne Gesetzesänderungen Korrekturen im Hinblick auf die Mandatssteuer vornehmen. Diese ist freiwillig und nicht gesetzlich geregelt.

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