India- China border: Changing profile

india- china border: changing profile

Image credit: PTI

By Maj Gen Ashok Kumar, VSM (Retd)

India became independent on August 15 1947. As against becoming the heir of British India in totality, it was partitioned in two nations viz India and Pakistan wherein Pakistan was again split in two parts, one in the West as West Pakistan and one in the East as East Pakistan. In addition to this, there were challenges related to integration of more than 500 princely states, majority of which had implications for India. While integration of princely states had commenced, Pakistan raiders with full support of Pakistani Army launched operations in J&K which resulted in the intervention of Indian Armed Forces as Maharaja Hari Singh signed an instrument of accession to accede to India and J&K became integral part of India. It is beside the point that the ceasefire before capture of the entire J&K has resulted in close to 45 percent of the area still being under adverse possession of Pakistan till date.

In addition to fighting Pakistan in 1947-48, India remained engaged in integration of various princely states. India captured Goa, Daman & Diu from the Portuguese as late as in Dec 1961 and that too, militarily. Discussions were also continuing with the PRC from 1957 onwards to resolve the border issue with them. Border areas were predominantly mountainous and high altitude, devoid of major population as well as near absence of axial as well as lateral roads except few which were continuing from pre independence days. The way India had supported PRC after the latter gained independence in the current form on October 1,1949, India never hoped that China would attack militarily. The establishment of so-called defensive forward posts by India from 1960 onwards was also probably based on the hope that China will not attack India.

But it did attack India almost along  the entire front with special focus in Ladakh and Arunachal Pradesh. It was reasonable for China not to employ their air and naval power as they were on their winning spree with land forces  alone but India also did not employ the available air and naval power in this month long war (October 20, 1962 to November 21, 1962) despite suffering huge losses both in terms of territory and soldier’s lives along with infrastructure damage.

It is important to understand that at this point of time ,  the country was just 15 years old, and had already fought a full fledged war with Pakistan besides substantial effort on integrating the princely states and Goa. Country wanted to focus more on the  development of the nation and well being of its people and therefore requisite focus on the defence forces was probably missed out as the threat from China was not visualised in the backdrop of ‘Panchsheel Agreement’ and Hindi Chini Bhai Bhai movement.

In 1962,the size of the defence forces, its equipment be it for Army, Navy or Air Force and its integrated approach did not match that of PRC which had inherited large size of defence forces after defeating ROC during the civil war. As against any major qualitative edge, it had massed the Army with which it overwhelmed our defenders. The outcome of the 1962 war is well known and its analysis has been done over a period of time. This war was  a watershed moment for India as a nation in general and the Indian Defence forces in particular. It is  this war after which the country focused on capacity creation for the defence forces but was not comfortable to develop the infrastructure in the forward areas in initial years as it was probably psyched that infrastructure could be used by the adversaries to advance in case of any future conflict.

While Pakistan launched 1965 war against India and lost, it lost its relevance militarily after 1971 war where it faced a comprehensive defeat and lost East Pakistan forever with East Pakistan becoming Bangladesh as an independent nation. Post 1962, India focused on empowering its defence force with new weapon acquisitions, enhanced synergy in the defence forces and creating necessary logistics sustenance means. These increased capacities resulted in beating Chinese in their own game in 1967 when they attempted skirmishes in Nathula and Chola in Sikkim. India was able to beat them and localize the conflict. The Indian Army alone pushed back them and the Chinese suffered larger casualties. This was followed by the 1971 war which became another watershed in the history of Indian Defence Forces which has become world class in its own way.

The 1967 win with China and 1971 decisive win against Pakistan brought India in a different league of nations. As a follow up, China Study Group(CSG) designated Patrolling Points(PPs) in 1975 in the Ladakh sector and India started asserting itself in the form of Line of Actual Control (LAC) which was included in the 1993 agreement of Peace and Tranquility. In 1975 itself, Sikkim became the 22nd state of India thus  India succeeded in fortifying its borders with China in the state of Sikkim.

China has always been trying to test Indian capabilities from time to time. Having tasted defeat from India in 1967 in Sikkim, it entered into conflict with Russia and got a beating also in 1969. Not only this, it entered into conflict with Vietnam in 1979 and failed to achieve its objective to change the Government in Cambodia for next 10 years. It turned its attention back to India and established Wangdung camp on the Southern side of Samdurong Chu in 1987. India responded by mass mobilization, occupied all forward positions and forced China not to make any further misadventure.

Post loss of face in 1987, China became more accommodative on improving peace and tranquility signing the agreements from 1993 onwards besides instituting formal mechanisms to resolve the border dispute. India also re-focused itself on Chinese border and infrastructure development albeit with normal pace. While India repelled Pakistani intrusion in 1999 in Kargil war, China kept itself aloof without jumping into the conflict. With Indian focus on infrastructure development and Arunachal Pradesh being granted full statehood in 1987, China’s discomfort had grown. The possibility of Chinese incursion across Samdurang Chu in 1987 being linked with grant of statehood to Arunachal Pradesh cannot be ruled out in totality while expansionist agenda and salami slicing were other two plausible reasons.

China has remained a restless country since inception and has been misadventuring regularly. It carried out Depsang incursions in 2013 which was resolved after political intervention and after granting certain concessions in Chumar. China tested India again through Bhutan in Doklam in 2017. India deployed its troops promptly and China had to withdraw back from the Doklam which was another event of loss of face.

While the world was battling Corona in the end 2019/beginning of 2020 presumably having started from China, China continued its expansionist agenda without break. It made incursions across LAC in Eastern Ladakh at multiple points in Apr-May 2020 and has not returned to those locations despite 16 rounds of Corps Cdr level talks. Air intrusions across LAC, in defiance of agreement of not coming close to LAC within 10Kms, are  becoming more regular.

It is important to realize and feel good about it that Indian defence forces have changed quantitatively and qualitatively. They are capable of handling both China and Pakistan together. Of course, it needs to further strengthen itself and make its future ready for the impending wars.

Key milestones on the Chinese border now Vs 1962 profile

-There has been an infrastructure surge all across our borders with China in terms of road and rail connectivity. It has helped in reducing our mobilization time for the war besides providing us the option for switching our forces from one area to another in an operationally acceptable timeframe. More work is needed and the same is being progressed. Once classifications of roads are improved and tiered lateral connectivities get completed, our capacity to both defend as well as launch offensive operations will increase.

-All weather connections have been created. Rohtang tunnel is operational. Fast pace work has commenced on Sela tunnel and Zojila tunnel. It’s a matter of time that we shall not be weather dependent for mobilistion of our troops. Road/rail movement will be possible as against being dependent only on aerial resources. Cost of sustenance of troops will reduce both in peace and war.

-Multiple crossing points have been created by laying bridges on the formidable rivers like Brahmaputra reducing our vulnerabilities.

-Forward airfields, heliports and landing grounds have been created to enhance the reach of our air power and the defence forces.

-High quality of induction of equipment is taking place in the Army, Navy and Airforce. More is in the pipeline with renewed focus on indigenous production. As we move ahead in time, we shall not remain hostage to any external country. Our Rafale gives shocks to the Chinese and we don’t have second thoughts to scramble our aircraft against Chinese AC. Our entire approach from being defensive in 1962 has been changed into a fully offensive approach to claim rightfully what is ours. We are willing to take risks and respond aggressively as done in 1967,1987, 2017 and now in 2020 while capturing Kailash ranges in Eastern Ladakh.

-We not only take offensive action as part of our defensive strategy but are willing to be proactive for offensive operations. It will be appropriate to highlight that now it’s a new India fully ready to handle China.

-India is now willing to take higher risks. It will not restrain itself from not  using air and naval power as was done in 1962 but will utilize every organ of the state to defend its national interests. IAF is being equipped with the best aircraft in the world while the Navy is being given the capability of controlling sea waters of the Indian Ocean.

-India has embarked upon the increased synergy of its defence forces. CDS post has been created and operationalised. Theatre commands are into making. Resource allocation and capacity creation will be in sync with threat perception.

-As against seeing China-Pakistan as collusive partners,  they are being seen as a single border. A new term could be coined for ‘China-Pak border’ as ‘Chi-Napak border’ based on their agenda towards India.

-India has attained nuclear status (so are China and Pakistan) and it is willing to risk conventional conflict under nuclear overhang.

-Largely having fought in 1962 on its own, it now has the support of multiple nations on its side. China’s expansionist agenda has been exposed and the world has taken a note of it.

-India has become economically strong and can sustain the war fighting over a prolonged duration.

In 1962, when India hoped that China would not attack but it did. India in the 75th year of independence now thinks that China can attack anytime and it has geared up accordingly. It has prepared capability based response and not the intent based response as intent can change overnight which is a common factor both in Chinese as well as Pak actions. At this juncture of 75th year of independence, while India has to make strides in multiple domains, it has become capable of defending its national interests.

The author is a Kargil war veteran and defence analyst. He is a visiting fellow of CLAWS and specialises in neighbouring countries with special focus on China. He can be contacted at trinetra.foundationonline@gmail.com and tweets from @chanakyaoracle.

Views expressed are personal and do not reflect the official position or policy of Financial Express Online. Reproducing this content without permission is prohibited).

News Related

OTHER NEWS

Thalapathy 67: Will Netflix Acquire Digital Rights?

Thalapathy Vijay and Lokesh Kanagaraj are all set to work together in the highly anticipated Tamil film, tentatively titled Thalapathy 67. The movie has been in the news ever since ... Read more »

Rajasthan political crisis: Congress gives clean chit to Gehlot, issues show cause notices to 3 MLAs

Rajasthan political crisis: Congress gives clean chit to Gehlot, issues show cause notices to 3 MLAs New Delhi: The Congress on Tuesday night issued show cause notices to two Rajasthan ... Read more »

Top court goes live in push for transparency

New Delhi, September 27: Scenes from a court inside the Supreme Court, where Constitution Bench hearings are now being live streamed, in New Delhi, on Tuesday, September 27, 2022. (HT Photo) ... Read more »

For ₹500/night, Uttarakhand offers real 'jail experience'

For ₹500/night, Uttarakhand offers real ‘jail experience’ DEHRADUN: If your astrologer predicts that planetary positions in your horoscope are not good (bandhan yog) and you are likely to go to ... Read more »

Day after mega crackdown, Centre bans radical outfit Popular Front of India

Day after mega crackdown, Centre bans radical outfit Popular Front of India Following multiple raids across the country and arrests by the probe agencies, radical outfit, Popular Front of India ... Read more »

Hindutva is a way of life, why is it related to extremism, asks actor Aashiesh Sharma

Hindutva is a way of life, why is it related to extremism, asks actor Aashiesh Sharma Actor Aashiesh Sharma on Tuesday said that “Hindutva” is a way of life and ... Read more »

'Greatest campaign slogan ever': Dr. Oz gives Fetterman a perfect opportunity for trolling after insult backfires

By Meaghan Ellis Dr. Mehmet Oz in 2008, Wikimedia Commons Republican Senate candidate Mehmet Oz appears to have given Democratic opponent John Fetterman an opportunity to troll him mercilessly after ... Read more »

Delhi Liquor Scam: CBI makes first arrest, nabs businessman Vijay Nair

Delhi Liquor Scam: CBI makes first arrest, nabs businessman Vijay Nair In a latest development in the alleged excise policy scam in Delhi, the Central Bureau of Investigation (CBI) made ... Read more »

Watch: Wife sings to husband of 70 years in this heart-touching video

Watch: Wife sings to husband of 70 years in this heart-touching video It is widely believed soulful music can have a healing effect and a video, which is now going ... Read more »

Barcelona's fitness woes continue! Club confirm Bellerin set to undergo tests on leg injury

Hector Bellerin Barcelona 2022-23 Bellerin to undergo tests on Wednesday Experiencing pain in left leg Joins long list of Barca injury concerns WHAT HAPPENED? According to the club, Bellerin “reported ... Read more »

'I guess I'll just..': Charlie Dean breaks silence on Deepti Sharma's controversial run-out saga

'I guess I'll just..': Charlie Dean breaks silence on Deepti Sharma's controversial run-out saga Days after Deepti Sharma cleverly dismissed Charlie Dean via run-out in the third ODI between India ... Read more »

Watch: This Pup's Friendship With Ducklings is the Cutest Thing on Internet Today

Watch: This Pup’s Friendship With Ducklings is the Cutest Thing on Internet Today Friendship is not based on any rationale. It occurs naturally and seamlessly. Imagine walking to your school ... Read more »

Chup box office collection Day 3: Dulquer Salmaan-Sunny Deol thriller gains momentum, here’s how much it minted

Chup box office collection Day 3: Dulquer Salmaan-Sunny Deol thriller gains momentum, here’s how much it minted Dulquer Salmaan and Sunny Deol’s thriller Chup: Revenge of the Artist has been ... Read more »

China’s focus to develop domestic medical device industry may discourage MNCs: GlobalData

GlobalData also claimed that the government wants foreign medical device manufacturers to transfer technologies and their assembly processes to China. (File) GlobalData said on Tuesday that China’s increasing focus to ... Read more »

Draft telecom bill proposes suspension of internet services in public interest

The Supreme Court expressed displeasure over such shutdowns in January 2020. (Getty Images/iStockphoto) The draft Indian Telecommunication Bill, which was released on Wednesday last, proposes time-bound limited suspension of internet ... Read more »

Was it illegal for Himanta and Sadhguru to enter Kaziranga at night? Strictly speaking, no

Facing flak for driving inside Kaziranga National Park with Sadhguru Jaggi Vasudev after sunset, Assam Chief Minister Himanta Biswa Sarma on Monday said that night safari in wildlife sanctuaries was ... Read more »

ECB offers to host Test series between India and Pakistan

Bilateral cricket between India and Pakistan has dried up due to political tensions between the two countries © AFP/Getty Images The ECB has offered to host men’s Test cricket between ... Read more »

G-Sec listing overseas: No plan for tax relief yet

Even as it’s keen on listing certain government securities on overseas bond indices, India is hesitant to extend capital gains tax waivers to foreign investors or freeze the rate at ... Read more »

Watch: Boy's Violent Act Sends Teacher To Hospital Bed

Watch: Boy’s Violent Act Sends Teacher To Hospital Bed During the COVID-19 lockdown, a lot of videos showing students taking advantage of virtual lectures surfaced on social media. Now, a ... Read more »

'My dad will be king': Prince George's cheeky reply to friends at school

‘My dad will be king’: Prince George’s cheeky reply to friends at school Prince George, the nine-year-old son of Prince William and Kate Middleton, reportedly told his classmates to “better ... Read more »

Enhance coverage of SCs in schemes: FM to PSU banks

Enhance coverage of SCs in schemes: FM to PSU banks NEW DELHI: As part of a focus on scheduled caste community, finance minister Nirmala Sitharaman on Tuesday asked state-run banks ... Read more »

WATCH: Virat Kohli and his ENERGETIC run after receiving THIS special prize in Hyderabad

WATCH: Virat Kohli and his ENERGETIC run after receiving THIS special prize in Hyderabad Former India captain Virat Kohli came back into form in the third and final T20I against ... Read more »

'We had warned her' - Deepti Sharma on the Charlie Dean dismissal

Was Deepti Sharma running Charlie Dean out at the non-striker’s end at Lord’s on Saturday a plan India had worked out in advance? Or was it an instinctive decision? According ... Read more »

'Don't Cross The Line!' Indian Fans Hit Back As England Captain Calls Team India 'Liar'

‘Don’t Cross The Line!’ Indian Fans Hit Back As England Captain Calls Team India ‘Liar’ Deepti Sharma, on Monday, made a revelation that the Indian team repeatedly warned Charlotte Dean ... Read more »

Well into offline schooling, students still in lockdown feels?

Students attending offline school (Representational Image) Even after 6 long months of offline schooling, many students are finding it difficult to shirk off the lockdown lethargy. Being shut behind doors ... Read more »

Do a Google Search for NASA DART and the results will surprise you

Do a Google Search for NASA DART and the results will surprise you NASA’s DART spacecraft successfully completed its planned collision with the asteroid Dimorphos at 4.44 AM IST on ... Read more »

'If Bhuvneshwar Kumar is listening...' - India's T20 WC medallist shares his two cents for out-of-form pacer

'If Bhuvneshwar Kumar is listening…' – India's T20 WC medallist shares his two cents for out-of-form pacer Since the Super Four round in the Asia Cup, India pacer Bhuvneshwar Kumar’s ... Read more »

Iran: 'Ex-president Akbar Hashemi Rafsanjani's daughter arrested,' says report

iran: ‘ex-president akbar hashemi rafsanjani’s daughter arrested,’ says report Tehran: Iran on Tuesday arrested the daughter of ex-president Akbar Hashemi Rafsanjani for inciting protests, the Tasnim news agency said, amid ... Read more »

'Truly, a historic day': More than 8 lakh viewers watched SC's first live streamed proceedings

‘truly, a historic day’: more than 8 lakh viewers watched sc’s first live streamed proceedings New Delhi: On the day the Supreme Court live streamed its proceedings for the first ... Read more »

Thane: 5, including 4 children injured after wall falls during demolition drive by BNMC

The demolition drive by Bhiwandi-Nizampura Municipal Corporation (BNMC) on a social organisation Hazrat Khwaja Garib Nawaz at Chauhan Colony on Tuesday turned out to be an unfortunate incident for four ... Read more »

‘Honest’ party worker, didn’t sign letter in favour of Tharoor: BJP MP

‘Honest’ party worker, didn’t sign letter in favour of Tharoor: BJP MP Stating that he is an “honest and loyal” worker of the party, BJP MP Dr Anil Agrawal has ... Read more »

PM to launch 3rd Vande Bharat train in Gandhinagar on Friday

PM to launch 3rd Vande Bharat train in Gandhinagar on Friday Prime Minister Narendra Modi will take a ride on the third Vande Bharat train which he will flag off ... Read more »

Fact Check: This photo of naked people demonstrating on road has nothing to do with Karnataka

New Delhi (Vishvas News). Days after a Dalit boy was allegedly thrashed for touching the idol at a religious procession in Karnataka’s Kolar district, on September 8, and his family ... Read more »

‘Injury Or Boosting Mumbai Lobby?’ Angry Fans Slam Rohit After Hooda’s Sudden Exclusion

‘Injury Or Boosting Mumbai Lobby?’ Angry Fans Slam Rohit After Hooda’s Sudden Exclusion It’s a known fact that Team India barely gets to rest and that their schedule has always ... Read more »

OnePlus Nord Watch specification officially revealed ahead of launch

OnePlus has officially revealed the specifications of the upcoming OnePlus Nord Watch ahead of launch. As revealed so far, the Nord Watch will boast a 1.78-inch AMOLED screen, with 500 ... Read more »

Adipurush: Here’s when the teaser of Prabhas and Kriti Sanon’s epic drama will be released

Kriti Sanon, Prabhas and Saif Ali Khan-starrer epic drama Adipurush’s teaser and poster of the movie will be unveiled on October 2. The poster and teaser will be launched on ... Read more »

Witnesses changed statement within months: Sanjay Raut

Witnesses changed statement within months: Sanjay Raut Mumbai: Pointing out the difference in statements of witnesses against Shiv Sena leader Sanjay Raut in the Patra Chawl redevelopment case, his advocate ... Read more »

5 Ways To Help Your Body Detoxify Efficiently Post Festival

The festival season is upon us, and food is the biggest part of our celebrations. No matter what you have been eating throughout the day, it becomes almost irresistible to ... Read more »

5G, metaverse to change e-comm experience for consumers

The focus will be on research and education that will promote scientific practice of marketing, present insights on the impact of digital, social, and mobile technologies on business models, customer ... Read more »

Central University Of Karnataka UG Admission 2022: Here's how CUET, JEE Main aspirants can apply

Representative Photo Kalaburagi: The Common University Entrance Test (CUET) application procedure for undergraduate (UG) admission to the Central University of Karnataka in 2022 has begun. Through the official website, cukcuet.samarth.edu.in, ... Read more »
Breaking thailand news, thai news, thailand news Verified News Story Network