Fahami akar persoalan

fahami akar persoalan

SERANGAN terbaru rejim zionis di semenanjung Gaza, Palestin. FOTO arkib NSTP

JIKA diimbas kembali pendudukan rejim Zionis sekali gus penubuhan negara haram Israel di tanah Palestin sejak 1948 sehingga hari ini, maka konflik Israel-Palestin sudah berusia kira-kira 74 tahun. Selama itu pula, tak terkira jumlah rakyat Palestin yang telah menjadi mangsa kebiadapan rejim Zionis. Orang tua, wanita dan kanak-kanak yang tidak berdosa telah menjadi mangsa kerakusan mereka. Siri kekejaman demi kekejaman yang dilakukan tidak pernah terhenti, bahkan terus berlarutan dari semasa ke semasa sehingga ke hari ini.

Namun, setiap kali muncul berita serangan serta penindasan oleh rejim Zionis terhadap rakyat Palestin (seperti yang berlaku di Semenanjung Gaza baru-baru ini), hal itu dianggap persoalan kemanusiaan semata-mata oleh sebahagian masyarakat antarabangsa.

Namun, bagi umat Islam, akar persoalan dalam memperjuangkan hak dan kebebasan tanah Palestin bukan hanya melibatkan aspek kemanusiaan, namun berkaitan dengan tiga aspek utama iaitu akidah, sejarah dan politik.

Jika ditinjau dari aspek akidah, tanah Palestin memiliki keutamaan dan menepati posisi sangat mulia di sisi Islam seperti disebutkan di dalam al-Quran dan hadis. Kemuliaannya terlihat melalui berdirinya Masjidil Aqsa, lambang kebesaran Islam sekali gus tempat yang diberkati. Seperti mana keterangan di dalam al-Quran yang menceritakan tentang peristiwa Isra’ Nabi Muhammad ﷺdari Masjidil Haram ke Masjidil Aqsa yang menjadi terminal pertama sebelum baginda Mi’raj ke langit. Allah berfirman: “Maha Suci Allah, yang telah memperjalankan hamba-Nya pada suatu malam dari Masjidil Haram ke Masjidil Aqsa yang telah Kami berkati sekelilingnya…” (Surah al-Isra’: 1)

Tanah Palestin juga disebut sebagai ‘al-Ardh al-Muqaddasah’ iaitu tempat yang disucikan dan dibersihkan daripada kemusyrikan dan dosa. Sebagaimana ungkapan Nabi Musa yang diceritakan di dalam al-Quran: “Wahai kaumku, masuklah ke Tanah Suci (Palestin) yang telah diperintahkan oleh Allah untuk kamu…” (Surah al-Maidah: 21) Bahkan, ia menjadi salah satu daripada tiga tempat suci umat Islam yang disarankan untuk dikunjungi seperti sabda Rasulullahﷺ: “Janganlah kamu bersusah payah mengembara (atau bermusafir bagi tujuan ibadah) melainkan pada tiga masjid iaitu Masjidil Haram, Masjid Nabawi dan juga Masjidil Aqsa.” (HR al-Bukhari)

Selain itu, tanah Palestin juga tempat tinggal para nabi seperti banyak dinukilkan di dalam al-Quran dan hadis sekali gus juga tanah milik umat Islam. Oleh itu, tidak hairanlah jika kelompok Harakah al-Muqawamah al-Islamiyah (HAMAS) berjuang dengan sekuat tenaga untuk merebutnya kembali daripada penjajah Zionis Israel kerana ia adalah tanah milik umat Islam.

Apabila ditelusuri sejarah, beberapa catatan peristiwa penting menjadi bukti perjuangan generasi terdahulu dalam membebaskan Palestin daripada cengkaman penjajah. Dahulunya wilayah Syam (termasuk Palestin) pernah dikuasai Rom selama tujuh abad (64 SM-637 M). Pada zaman Rasulullah SAWﷺ, misi agung untuk membebaskannya daripada empayar Rom telah dilakukan melalui ekspedisi ketenteraan Mu’tah dan Tabuk sekali gus menjadi bukti kepedulian dan keprihatinan baginda terhadap usaha itu. Perjuangan panjang dalam beberapa siri peperangan di antara kaum Muslimin dengan pihak Rom telah menuai kejayaan sewaktu kekhalifahan Umar bin al-Khattṭṭab pada 638M apabila kota Baitul Maqdis dan wilayah Syam secara umumnya dibebaskan daripada cengkaman dan penguasaan Rom.

Setelah dikuasai dan dijaga dengan baik oleh kaum Muslimin sejak beberapa abad, tanggal 25 November 1095, Paus Urbanus II melancarkan Perang Salib dan tentera Salib merampas dan menjajah Baitul Maqdis pada 1099. Malah, mereka telah membantai 30,000 umat Islam secara kejam dan membunuh wanita, kanak-kanak dan orang tua.

Namun, penguasaan mereka ke atas tanah suci Baitul Maqdis tidak bertahan lama setelah panglima Islam, Salahuddin al-Ayyubi bersama pasukannya berjaya membebaskannya semula setelah dijajah sekitar 88 tahun (1099–1187). Perjuangan membebaskan Palestin ini sepanjang sejarah terus berjalan sehinggalah hari ini tatkala Yahudi dibantu negara Barat telah mendirikan negara haram Israel di atas tanah Palestin sejak 1948. Berkesinambungan daripada peristiwa tersebut, perjuangan dalam membebaskan Palestin juga berkait erat dengan aspek siasah (politik) yang tidak terlepas daripada campur tangan gerakan Zionisme dan imperialisme Barat.

Zionisme adalah gerakan orang Yahudi untuk mendirikan negara khusus bagi komuniti mereka. Theodor Herzl juga tokoh yang mencetuskan idea pembentukan negara haram di atas tanah Palestin di dalam karyanya berjudul ‘Der Judenstaad’ (The Jewish State). Sejak awal, keberadaan negara haram yang digelar oleh mereka dengan sebutan Israel tidak lepas daripada kepentingan negara imperialis Barat, terutamanya British dan Amerika Syarikat. Peranan British dalam pembentukan negara Israel tampak nyata sewaktu termeterainya Deklarasi Balfour, berupa surat daripada Kementerian Luar Negeri British, Arthur James Balfour, kepada pemimpin Zionis, Lord Rothschild pada 2 November 1917.

Isi kandungan surat berkenaan menjadi dasar pengakuan British terhadap keberadaan negara Israel di Palestin. Sebagai penguasa di Palestin sejak runtuhnya empayar Uthmaniyah, British memiliki kepentingan besar untuk mendukung berdirinya negara Israel. Keberadaan negara Zionis itu di jantung Timur Tengah telah menimbulkan konflik dan ketidakstabilan di wilayah tersebut. Dengan kondisi itu, British lebih mudah menanamkan pengaruhnya.

Kepentingan Amerika Syarikat atas konflik di Palestin juga sama, iaitu untuk meluaskan pengaruhnya. Tidak hairanlah jika pelbagai dasar politik keji yang ditempuh Israel di Timur Tengah sehingga kini sering mendapat dukungan negara Uncle Sam. Sehingga hari ini, tanah Palestin terus menjadi medan percaturan politik kuasa besar mengakibatkan proses mengusir penjajah dan mengembalikan semula tanah Palestin kepada umat Islam mengalami halangan.

Penulis Penganalisis Undang-Undang Antarabangsa Islam (Siyar) dan calon Doktor Falsafah di Akademi Pengajian Islam Universiti Malaya

© New Straits Times Press (M) Bhd

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