Ein Drittel der motivierten und fähigen Sozialhilfeempfänger findet wieder eine Arbeit – doch nicht alle können sie behalten

Seit drei Jahren setzt die Stadt Zürich auf Freiwilligkeit bei der Arbeitsintegration. Am Montag hat der Sozialvorsteher Raphael Golta Bilanz gezogen.

© Bereitgestellt von Neue Zürcher Zeitung Wer ausgesteuert wurde und Sozialhilfe beantragt, kann in einem ersten Schritt an der Aemtlerstrasse eine sogenannte Basisbeschäftigung durchlaufen. Karin Hofer / NZZ

Wer in der Stadt Zürich über längere Zeit arbeitslos ist und in der Folge ausgesteuert wird, muss sich irgendwann womöglich an der Aemtlerstrasse 203 einfinden. Im Backsteingebäude unweit des Albisriederplatzes durchlaufen Sozialhilfeempfänger eine sogenannte Basisbeschäftigung. Für die meisten Sozialhilfebezügerinnen und -bezüger sind die beruflichen und sozialen Integrationsmassnahmen freiwillig. Zur Teilnahme gezwungen werden nur noch Personen, die trotz intakten Arbeitsmarktchancen zu wenig Engagement bei der Stellensuche zeigen.

Vor drei Jahren hat die Stadt Zürich in der Sozialhilfepolitik diesen Paradigmenwechsel vollzogen. Seither lautet das Motto: «Motivation ist nicht das Problem – Zwang nicht die Lösung.» Am Montagmorgen hat der Sozialvorsteher Raphael Golta (sp.) Bilanz gezogen. Er zeigte sich überzeugt, dass das Stadtzürcher Modell funktioniert. «Die Motivation muss von den Menschen kommen, sie ist zentral für den Erfolg», sagte Golta an der Medienkonferenz.

Er verwies auf den zunehmend selektiver werdenden Arbeitsmarkt, auf dem Geringqualifizierte immer weniger gesucht würden. «Zwang und Druck bringen nichts, wenn ein Ziel unerreichbar ist.» Stattdessen müsse man die realistischen Arbeitsmarktchancen der Betroffenen anerkennen und sie dabei unterstützen, ihre Qualifikationen zu verbessern.

Im März lebten in der Stadt Zürich 12 850 Personen von Sozialhilfe. An der Basisbeschäftigung teilnehmen können 18- bis 64-Jährige, die arbeitsfähig und zu mindestens 50 Prozent verfügbar sind. Im März kamen 15 Prozent der Sozialhilfebezügerinnen und -bezüger – also 1427 Personen – für die berufliche Integration infrage.

In der Basisbeschäftigung bereiten die Teilnehmer während vier Wochen in der Küche Essen zu oder zimmern Bienenhäuschen in der Holzwerkstatt. Andere flicken Velos, nehmen alte Computer auseinander oder bringen Spielplätze auf Vordermann. Nach einem Monat werden sie anhand ihrer Arbeitsmarktfähigkeit und Motivation in eine von vier Gruppen eingeteilt.

Die Evaluation des Projekts zeigt: Ein Drittel der Teilnehmerinnen und Teilnehmer haben gute Chancen, eine Stelle im regulären Arbeitsmarkt zu finden, da sie sowohl motiviert sind als auch über die nötigen Fähigkeiten verfügen. Die Gruppe der «renitenten» Sozialhilfebezüger, die zwar gute Chancen auf dem Arbeitsmarkt haben, aber nicht gewillt sind, sich zu bewerben, und zur Teilnahme am Programm gezwungen werden, ist klein. In den letzten drei Jahren gehörten ihr 50 Personen an oder ein Prozent der Teilnehmerinnen und Teilnehmer.

Menschen, die über die nötigen Ressourcen verfügen, werden beim Wiedereintritt in den regulären Arbeitsmarkt unterstützt. Wer wegen fehlender Qualifikation oder gesundheitlicher Beeinträchtigungen kaum Aussicht auf eine existenzsichernde Beschäftigung hat, kann Angebote zur sozialen Integration freiwillig besuchen – ohne den Druck, mitmachen und tatsächlich eine Stelle finden zu müssen.

Wie viele Personen den Sprung in den ersten Arbeitsmarkt schaffen, ist je nach Gruppe verschieden. Von den Unmotivierten mit geringen Fähigkeiten finden 7 Prozent einen Job. Bei Personen mit hoher Motivation und guten Fähigkeiten stehen die Chancen um einiges besser: Von ihnen finden 31 Prozent eine Arbeitsstelle.

Wie nachhaltig der Erfolg des Programms ist, wird sich noch abschliessend zeigen müssen. Die Pandemie hat den Arbeitsmarkt beeinflusst. In einem Sample wurde aber untersucht, wie viele Personen, die zwischen Dezember 2018 und Juni 2019 eine Stelle gefunden hatten, bis September 2020 wieder in der Basisbeschäftigung gelandet sind. Die Wiedereintrittsquote lag bei den Motivierten und Fähigen bei 17 Prozent, bei den Unmotivierten mit geringen Fähigkeiten bei 25 Prozent.

Der «zielgruppenspezifische Ressourceneinsatz» habe sich bewährt, stellte Golta fest. Und trotz der Freiwilligkeit sei die Teilnehmerzahl bei den Integrationsprogrammen nicht eingebrochen.

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