Earth's interior is cooling faster than expected

the latest tech news, global tech news daily, tech news today, startups, usa tech, asia tech, china tech, eu tech, global tech, in-depth electronics reviews, 24h tech news, 24h tech news, top mobile apps, tech news daily, gaming hardware, big tech news, useful technology tips, expert interviews, reporting on the business of technology, venture capital funding, programing language

Earth's interior is cooling faster than expected

The evolution of our Earth is the story of its cooling: 4.5 billion years ago, extreme temperatures prevailed on the surface of the young Earth, and it was covered by a deep ocean of magma. Over millions of years, the planet’s surface cooled to form a brittle crust. However, the enormous thermal energy emanating from the Earth’s interior set dynamic processes in motion, such as mantle convection, plate tectonics and volcanism.

the latest tech news, global tech news daily, tech news today, startups, usa tech, asia tech, china tech, eu tech, global tech, in-depth electronics reviews, 24h tech news, 24h tech news, top mobile apps, tech news daily, gaming hardware, big tech news, useful technology tips, expert interviews, reporting on the business of technology, venture capital funding, programing language

Still unanswered, though, are the questions of how fast the Earth cooled and how long it might take for this ongoing cooling to bring the aforementioned heat-driven processes to a halt.

One possible answer may lie in the thermal conductivity of the minerals that form the boundary between the Earth’s core and mantle.

Global Tech News Daily

This boundary layer is relevant because it is here that the viscous rock of the Earth’s mantle is in direct contact with the hot iron-nickel melt of the planet’s outer core. The temperature gradient between the two layers is very steep, so there is potentially a lot of heat flowing here. The boundary layer is formed mainly of the mineral bridgmanite. However, researchers have a hard time estimating how much heat this mineral conducts from the Earth’s core to the mantle because experimental verification is very difficult.

Now, ETH Professor Motohiko Murakami and his colleagues from Carnegie Institution for Sciencehave developed a sophisticated measuring system that enables them to measure the thermal conductivity of bridgmanite in the laboratory, under the pressure and temperature conditions that prevail inside the Earth. For the measurements, they used a recently developed optical absorption measurement system in a diamond unit heated with a pulsed laser.

Global Tech News Daily

“This measurement system let us show that the thermal conductivity of bridgmanite is about 1.5 times higher than assumed,” Murakami says. This suggests that the heat flow from the core into the mantle is also higher than previously thought. Greater heat flow, in turn, increases mantle convection and accelerates the cooling of the Earth. This may cause plate tectonics, which is kept going by the convective motions of the mantle, to decelerate faster than researchers were expecting based on previous heat conduction values.

Murakami and his colleagues have also shown that rapid cooling of the mantle will change the stable mineral phases at the core-mantle boundary. When it cools, bridgmanite turns into the mineral post-perovskite. But as soon as post-perovskite appears at the core-mantle boundary and begins to dominate, the cooling of the mantle might indeed accelerate even further, the researchers estimate, since this mineral conducts heat even more efficiently than bridgmanite.

“Our results could give us a new perspective on the evolution of the Earth’s dynamics. They suggest that Earth, like the other rocky planets Mercury and Mars, is cooling and becoming inactive much faster than expected,” Murakami explains.

However, he cannot say how long it will take, for example, for convection currents in the mantle to stop. “We still don’t know enough about these kinds of events to pin down their timing.” To do that calls first for a better understanding of how mantle convection works in spatial and temporal terms. Moreover, scientists need to clarify how the decay of radioactive elements in the Earth’s interior – one of the main sources of heat – affects the dynamics of the mantle.

Research Report: “Radiative thermal conductivity of single-crystal bridgmanite at the core-mantle boundary with implications for thermal evolution of the Earth”

News Related

OTHER NEWS

New Earth Trojan asteroid

An International team of astronomers led by researcher Toni Santana-Ros, from the University of Alicante and the Institute of Cosmos Sciences of the University of Barcelona (ICCUB), has confirmed the ... Read more »

Space Foundation Launches Space Commerce Institute

Space Foundation, a nonprofit advocate organization founded in 1983 for the global space ecosystem, has launched Space Commerce Institute, a program offered by Center for Innovation and Education to facilitate ... Read more »

Boost for space clusters across the UK

These regional hubs, known as space clusters, will support new and growing companies, building on local expertise and catalysing investment into the space sector. Over 600,000 pounds will go towards ... Read more »

Turion Space and NanoAvionics to build a satellite for orbital reconnaissance mission

US company Turion Space, aiming to build spacecraft to remove orbital-debris, satellite servicing, and domain awareness, has selected NanoAvionics small satellite bus, the MP42, as the basis for its ‘Droid-1’ ... Read more »

Incoming! Debris enroute to the Moon

The Moon is set to gain one more crater. A leftover SpaceX Falcon 9 upper stage will impact the lunar surface in early March, marking the first time that a ... Read more »

Rocket Lab to expand Colorado dootprint with new Space Systems Complex

Rocket Lab USA will open a new space systems complex in Littleton, Colorado to support growing customer demand for flight software, mission simulation, and Guidance, Navigation and Control (GNC) services. ... Read more »

Punxsutawney Phil predicts six more weeks of winter in US

Don’t put away those coats and mittens just yet, America. Punxsutawney Phil, the world’s furriest weather forecaster, is predicting six more weeks of winter. In an annual February 2 tradition, ... Read more »

Animal genomes: Chromosomes almost unchanged for over 600 million years

Animal diversity is fascinating, but how is this reflected in their genetic material, the genome? Is it possible to definitely distinguish animals from one another based on genetic information, and ... Read more »

Newly discovered asteroid just second of its kind

You may have heard of the Trojans, two vast swarms of asteroids that lead and trail Jupiter on its orbit around the Sun. But the king of the planets doesn’t ... Read more »

Did comet's fiery destruction lead to downfall of ancient Hopewell?

The rapid decline of the Hopewell culture about 1,500 years ago might be explained by falling debris from a near-Earth comet that created a devastating explosion over North America, laying ... Read more »

Even dying stars can still give birth to planets

Planets are usually not much older than the stars around which they revolve. Take the Sun: it was born 4.6 billion years ago, and not long after that, Earth came ... Read more »

Study shows 'shocking' way Earth's magnetic field produces plasma jets

Even though Earth’s magnetic field shields us from solar wind and space weather-it doesn’t always offer complete protection. Researchers have discovered a new mechanism in Earth’s space environment that can ... Read more »

China's solar research to get boost from satellite

China’s solar observation satellite has achieved some scientific and technological feats during its ongoing in-orbit trial operation, according to a space official. Zhao Jian, head of the China National Space ... Read more »

SpaceX scrubs launch of Italian satellite from Florida, will try again Friday

SpaceX on Thursday scrubbed its planned launch of an Italian Earth-observation satellite, the COSMO-SkyMed Second Generation 2 and said it plans to try again Friday. “Due to unfavorable weather, now ... Read more »

Lowell helps confirm second Earth Trojan

Supported by observations made with the 4.3-meter Lowell Discovery Telescope (LDT) in northern Arizona, an international team of scientists confirmed the existence of the second-known Earth Trojan Asteroid (ETA), 2020 ... Read more »

NASA details plan to deorbit International Space Station in 2031

NASA has released details of the International Space Station’s transition plan, including destruction of the structure in 2031, and research goals for the interim and the future. The ISS will ... Read more »

The universe much sharper in the picture with new algorithms and supercomputers

With new algorithms and supercomputers, an incredibly detailed radio map of the universe was created. Now astronomers can look at radio data of galaxies with much more precision. This was ... Read more »

Satellogic Announces Strategic Partnership With Palantir Technologies

Satellogic Inc., a leader in sub-meter resolution satellite imagery collection, has announced a new partnership with Palantir Technologies Inc. (NYSE:PLTR), a leading builder of operating systems for the modern enterprise. ... Read more »

Space Sustainability - It's Time for Action

His Royal Highness the Prince of Wales visited Astroscale’s ELSA-d Mission Control Centre this afternoon, to learn more from the first private company to demonstrate a vision for the safe ... Read more »

Scientists identify geological 'Goldilocks zone' for the formation of metal ore deposits

Scientists have identified a mechanism through which important metals, crucial to the manufacturing of renewable energy technologies, are passed from the Earth’s mantle to the crust. The team, including researchers ... Read more »

D-Orbit merges with Breeze Holdings Acquisition Corp. to become Publicly Company

D-Orbit S.p.A., an Italy-based and market leading space logistics and transportation company, has announced that it will become publicly listed through a business combination with Breeze Holdings Acquisition Corp. (NASDAQ: ... Read more »

SpaceX sucessfully launches Italian Earth-observation satellite

SpaceX successfully launched an Italian Earth-observation satellite, the COSMO-SkyMed Second Generation 2, from Florida after several days of setbacks. A Falcon 9 rocket mounted with the spacecraft lifted off at ... Read more »

NASA asteroid tracking system now capable of full sky search

The NASA-funded Asteroid Terrestrial-impact Last Alert System (ATLAS)-a state-of-the-art asteroid detection system operated by the University of Hawaii (UH) Institute for Astronomy (IfA) for the agency’s Planetary Defense Coordination Office ... Read more »

2D material in three dimensions

The carbon material graphene has no well-defined thickness, it merely consists of one single layer of atoms. It is therefore often referred to as a “two-dimensional material”. Trying to make ... Read more »

New funding to support sustainable future of space

The UK Space Agency is providing 1.7 million pounds for new projects to support sustainable space operations, Science Minister George Freeman announced Monday. The 13 new projects will help track ... Read more »

What the rise of oxygen on early Earth tells us about life on other planets

When did the Earth reach oxygen levels sufficient to support animal life? Researchers from McGill University have discovered that a rise in oxygen levels occurred in step with the evolution ... Read more »

Rocket Lab to provide Venture Class Launch Services for NASA

Rocket Lab has been selected by NASA as one of twelve companies to provide launch services for the agency’s Venture-Class Acquisition of Dedicated and Rideshare (VADR) missions, providing new opportunities ... Read more »

How NASA in Silicon Valley will use Webb Telescope to study distant worlds

NASA’s James Webb Space Telescope is getting ready to give us the best view yet of worlds beyond our own solar system, commonly known as exoplanets. Scientists at NASA’s Ames ... Read more »

ESA determines new 'space time'

Since November 2021, ESA’s satellites and ground stations have been running on a newly defined, incredibly precise “ESOC time”. Measured by two atomic clocks in the basement of the ESOC ... Read more »

Exoplanet has Earth-like layered atmosphere made of titanium gas

Scientists have discovered that a planet outside of the solar system may have a complex atmosphere made of metal gases that operate like Earth’s atmosphere. The research, published in the ... Read more »

In space race, Europe faces choice: passenger or pilot

As the race to send people to the Moon and beyond heats up, Europe faces calls to make a choice: Keep paying for seats on spacecraft or finally fly its ... Read more »

Astra Awarded VADR Contract by NASA

Astra Space, Inc. has been awarded of the Venture-Class Acquisition of Dedicated and Rideshare (VADR) Launch Services Indefinite Delivery/Indefinite Quantity (IDIQ) contract from the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) ... Read more »

New ISS National Laboratory tool expands visibility of ISS-related educational resources

The Center for the Advancement of Science in Space, Inc. (CASIS), manager of the International Space Station (ISS) National Laboratory, has announced the release of a new online tool for ... Read more »

NASA provides updated International Space Station Transition Plan

The International Space Station is a unique laboratory that is returning enormous scientific, educational, and technological developments to benefit people on Earth and is enabling our ability to travel into ... Read more »

When light loses symmetry, it can hold particles

Optical tweezers use light to immobilize microscopic particles as small as a single atom in 3D space. The basic principle behind optical tweezers is the momentum transfer between light and ... Read more »

Chinese satellite reportedly grappled, moved another spacecraft away from orbit

The event was discussed as part of a webinar on managing the risks of satellite close approaches in geostationary orbit, hosted by the Center for Strategic and International Studies and ... Read more »

China's cooperation with int'l space community fruitful

China has been engaged with the international space community over the past five years, yielding fruitful results in space science, technology and application, a Chinese official said Friday. China launched ... Read more »

Extreme exoplanet has a complex and exotic atmosphere

An international team including researchers from the University of Bern and the University of Geneva as well as the National Centre of Competence in Research (NCCR) PlanetS analyzed the atmosphere ... Read more »

China to improve space infrastructure with new satellites, technologies: white paper

China will continue to improve its space infrastructure, and integrate remote-sensing, communications, navigation, and positioning satellite technologies in the next five years, according to a white paper released on Friday. ... Read more »

China to boost satellite services, space technology application: white paper

China will continue to boost public services with satellites and promote the application and transfer of space technology in the next five years, according to a white paper on the ... Read more »