Digitales Museum gibt Einblicke in die Berner Medizingeschichte

Asia's Tech News Daily

Digitales Museum gibt Einblicke in die Berner Medizingeschichte
© Staatsarchiv Bern Insel II 2653

Vom Nierensteinzertrümmerer bis zur Patientenschau: das Inselspital und die Universität Bern haben am Donnerstag ein gemeinsames, digitales Medizinmuseum eröffnet. Geschichten aus der Geschichte sollen das Publikum zum Nachdenken anregen.

Denn die Medizinhistorie der Berner “Insel” ist reich. Das 1354 von der Ratsherrentochter Anna Seiler gestiftete Spital ist die älteste Unternehmung der Schweiz, die heute noch aktiv ist.

Das digitale Museum verfügt über rund 10’000 Exponate, mehrheitlich aus der Zeit seit 1900, wie die Verantwortlichen am Donnerstag mitteilten. Die Ausstellungsgegenstände repräsentieren Tätigkeiten, Behandlungen, Erfindungen und Alltäglichkeiten des Spitalalltages.

“Sie zeigen, dass Medizin nicht einfach existiert, sondern gemacht wird” erklärt Museumsdirektor Hubert Steinke in der Mitteilung. Und: “Wie Medizin gemacht wird, ändert sich laufend, gestern und heute. Und das Spannende daran: Wir alle sind Teil dieses Prozesses”.

Gerade die aktuelle Pandemie hat aber auch gezeigt, dass eine Debatte über Gesundheit und Medizin nicht einfach zu führen ist. Das digitale Medizinmuseum will hier Werkzeuge zum Umgang mit diesen Herausforderungen anbieten.

Das digitale Museum will denn auch keine formaldehydgetränkte Gruselkammer sein, wie dies Medizinmuseen in der Vergangenheit oft waren. Nicht die Äusserlichkeiten sollen zur Schau gestellt werden, sondern der Dialog mit den Betrachtenden steht im Zentrum.

Dies geschieht durch Geschichten, die Schlaglichter werfen auf die Entwicklung der modernen Medizin.

Zur Schau gestellt

Eine solche Geschichte erzählt beispielsweise davon, wie noch bis ins 19. Jahrhundert eine sogenannte “Patientenschau” stattfand. Wer ins Spital aufgenommen werden wollte, musste sich im sogenannten “Schausaal” von Ärzten und Chirurgen begutachten lassen.

Patienten mit ansteckenden oder unheilbaren Krankheiten wurden abgewiesen. Nur diejenigen hatten eine Chance, die in absehbarer Zeit Aussicht auf Genesung hatten. Vor der Einführung von Krankenkassen war Armut eine weitere Voraussetzung, um ins Inselspital einzutreten. Vermögende liessen sich nämlich zu Hause behandeln.

Aus dem Flugzeugbau

Eine andere Geschichte erzählt von einem ausgesprochen unangenehmen Leiden: von Nierensteinen. Seit dem Mittelalter gelangten die sogenannten “Steinschneider” mit einem Schnitt in die Harnröhre und zogen so den Stein heraus.

Der in Bern tätige Chirurg Wilhelm von Fabry verfasste 1626 eine der wichtigsten Schriften zu diesem Verfahren. Erst in der Mitte des 19. Jahrhunderts kamen risikoärmere Verfahren in Mode.

1985 folgte schliesslich eine kleine Revolution: Die sogenannte Extrakorporale Stosswellenlithotripsie (ESWL) machte Eingriffe in den Körper überflüssig. Auch das Inselspital nahm den ersten “Nierensteinzertrümmerer” in Betrieb.

Die Technik stammte aus dem Flugzeugbau. Das Kampfflugzeug “Starfighter” erlitt im Überschallflug Schäden durch die aufprallenden Regentropfen. Ingenieure des Produzenten Dornier entwickelten deshalb in den 1960er-Jahren ein Instrument zur künstlichen Erzeugung von Stosswellen. Sie wollten im Labor geeignetes Material auf seine Eignung testen.

Mediziner und Ingenieure forschten in der Folge mehr als zehn Jahre, bis die Technologie für medizinische Zwecke adaptiert und einsatzbereit war.

Wissenschaftlicher Kontext

Kuratiert wird die Ausstellung von der Universität Bern. Der Museumsdirektor ist auch der Lehrstuhlinhaber des Universitätsinstitutes für Medizingeschichte.

Für die Zukunft arbeitet das Team bereits an einer physischen Ausstellung zu bestimmten Themen. Das Museum will zudem gezielt potenzielle Interessengruppen wie Schulen, Studierende oder ältere Menschen ansprechen.

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