For much of the year, British and French ministers have traded threats and accusations over post-Brexit arrangements for fishing waters. But the row now appears to be coming to a head.
What is the clash about?
When the UK left the EU’s single market and customs union on 31 January 2020 – the so-called transition period after the end of the country’s membership of the bloc – it left the common fisheries policy that has peacefully divvied up the spoils of Europe’s waters since the 1970s.
It also ended the Bay of Granville agreement, signed in 2000 by Britain and the self governing Channel Islands, which had established a pattern of rights for French boats up to three miles from the islands’ coasts.
Within the Brexit trade and cooperation agreement, struck last Christmas Eve, there is a new EU-UK fisheries agreement that offers French fishers the continuation of the status quo in a zone in the waters of Jersey and Guernsey, and in the coastal zone between six and 12 miles from the UK’s shores up to 2026, if they can prove that they had previously been operating in those waters.
What is going wrong?
Almost 1,700 EU vessels have now been licensed to fish in UK waters, the UK government says, equating to 98% of EU applications for fishing licences. The percentage figure is disputed in Paris.
The main differences between the two sides are centred on rights within the six to 12 mile zone off the British coast. Earlier this week, the European Commission said the UK government had approved 15 out of 47 applications for French boats to operate in those coastal waters.
A further 15 applications are being considered where evidence of activity in those waters is limited, but 17 applications have been withdrawn by French applicants because of “poor evidence”.
Of greater concern to the French authorities, a third of boats applying to fish in the waters off Jersey, a British crown dependency, have also been turned down by the island’s government.
The French government says that the level of evidence being demanded by the authorities is unrealistic and that the UK is acting in breach of its treaty obligations.
On Wednesday the French government said that unless something changes, they would ban British fishing boats from landing seafood in French ports from next Tuesday, vowed to impose onerous checks on cross-Channel trade, and threatened the UK’s energy supply. Both the UK and Jersey rely on subsea cables bringing energy from French nuclear power stations.
How has Downing Street responded?
Related: PM vows to hit back if France breaks post-Brexit fishing agreement
Angrily. The French government is threatening to act unilaterally. They do not yet have the support of the other EU member states to go through the dispute resolution mechanism in the trade and cooperation agreement to impose sanctions on the UK.
Downing Street, somewhat ironically given its actions over Northern Ireland, has accused Paris of threatening to break international law.
The government had said that if the French threats come to pass, they “will be met with an appropriate and calibrated response”.
What is going to happen?
While the French government is infuriated by the British government’s attitude to the trade and cooperation agreement, including the separate row over Northern Ireland, the coming presidential election France is further fuelling the disagreement.
Emmanuel Macron wants to show that he is backing his fisher communities. A full trade dispute appears inevitable, with tit for tat measures.
A deadline of 1 November has been set by the French for the issue to be resolved through the issuing of further licences. It does not seem likely that the UK or Jersey will respond in a favourable manner to the sabre rattling.
The trade and cooperation agreement allows the UK to respond with proportionate sanctions on the French, which will most likely impact on those vessels who do have permits to operate. The situation is likely to get worse, with potential blockades by French fishers of British and jersey ports, before it gets any better.Internet Explorer Channel Network