Asteroid with a refreshed surface

Asia's Tech News Daily

Asteroid with a refreshed surface

How did our Solar System form and evolve? Various models for the creation of our system of planets have been proposed, but the planets themselves provide unfortunately little information as their interiors have melted and erased evidence of the early stages of formation. However, situated between Mars and Jupiter, are the asteroids of the asteroid belt whose smaller size means they are thought to have not undergone melting in their inner regions. These minor bodies therefore preserve information on the early Solar System, making their properties key to understanding how the planets formed and evolved.

Observations of the near-infrared spectra of the 114km diameter asteroid 596 Scheila that orbits within the asteroid belt revealed that the asteroid changed colour after an impact event in December 2010. This suggests that the older surface layer of 596 Scheila, which had been exposed to outer space for a long period, had been covered with fresh subsurface material ejected from the impact crater. The asteroid colour became redder after the collision, indicating that the near-infrared light from the asteroid shifts towards blue due to prolonged space weathering.

The observations were conducted before and after impact by an international team of researchers, led by HASEGAWA Sunao, Associate Senior Researcher at ISAS, JAXA, in collaboration with researchers from Massachusetts Institute of Technology, the European Southern Observatory, University of Hawaii, Seoul National University, Kyoto University, Charles University, Kobe University and Laboratoire d’Astrophysique de Marseille.

There are many minor bodies with a red spectrum similar to the fresh surface of 596 Scheila at the outer edge of the Solar System, which is redder than those typically found in the asteroid belt. The blueing caused by space weathering moreover suggests that the dark and red minor bodies we can currently observe may have once been redder still. Many such dark and red bodies exist in the asteroid belt. These observations therefore suggest that many more celestial bodies in the asteroid belt may have originated from the outer edge of the Solar System than previously thought.

The results of this research were published on 2022/01/06 in the Astrophysical Journal Letters, an academic journal of the American Astronomical Society.

The many craters on the surface of the Moon and on asteroids demonstrate that the history of the Solar System is a history of “collisions”. However, the craters on the surface of a minor body have been accumulated since the formation of that body, and not recently formed. The impact on 596 Scheila is therefore the first example humans have of observing a collision with an asteroid.

In December 2010, asteroid 596 Scheila that resides in the asteroid belt between Mars and Jupiter, suddenly exhibited a comet-like appearances, with the characteristic coma and tail leading out from star-like point source and ejecting dust. The dust cloud released from the 596 Scheila coma has a different shape to a regular comet, and the activity (release of dust) was also transient. Past studies modelled this phenomenon based on the observed physical quantities of 596 Scheila, and knowledge of collision behaviour obtained at the Hypervelocity Impact Facility at ISAS, and revealed that it was caused by the collision of 596 Scheila with a celestial body with a diameter of 30 – 50m.

The spectrum obtained of 596 Scheila before the impact event classified the asteroid as a T-type asteroid, which is a slightly bluer object than the D-type asteroids and redder than the spectrum of C-type asteroids such as 162173 Ryugu, from which the Hayabusa2 mission returned a sample. The Tagish Lake meteorite is known for its red spectrum consistent with the spectrum of a D-type or T-type asteroids. The analysis of this meteorite suggests is it is very primitive among carbonaceous chondrite meteorites.

The impact of 596 Scheila, which is thought to have a very primitive composition, therefore gives the opportunity to develop the following research.

In the asteroid belt, asteroids that have a diameter of 100km or more are generally considered to have been spared from catastrophic destruction and are instead survivors of the primitive planetesimal population that existed in the early stages of the Solar System’s formation. However, even these surviving primitive planetesimals continue to undergo space weathering of their surfaces causing changes in their spectra, as well as changes from their early orbits due to the influence of Jupiter and Saturn.

Nevertheless, knowledge of the current asteroid belt can be combined with a variety of different pieces of information and models to explore the history and origin of the Solar System. In order to clarify the composition and distribution of the primitive planetesimals at the time of the asteroid belt’s formation, our international research team have therefore been working to obtain near-infrared spectroscopic data for objects which have not previously been observed through a spectroscopic survey of asteroids in the asteroid belt with a diameter of 100km or larger.

In scrutinizing both collected and previously published data, our research team noticed that there was now near-infrared spectroscopic observations for 596 Scheila that was performed both before and after the 2010 collision phenomenon. We therefore examined the spectra before and after the collision, using previously published data and new observations conducted for this study.

The result of the comparison was the detection of a variation in the spectra at wavelengths of 0.8 – 2.5 microns in the near-infrared, although no spectral variation could be seen in visible light or wavelengths of 3 microns. This variation shifted the slope of the near-infrared spectrum to redder wavelengths after the collision (the spectral type changed from T-type to D-type).

There are several possibilities for changes to the spectrum before and after after the collision, but a likely factor is the change in the spectrum due to space weathering. Before the collision, the surface layer of the asteroid would have experienced weathering from being exposed to space. The surface layer was then covered by fresh material released from within the crater formed during the impact with the celestial body. This covered the weathered material to rejuvenate the appearance of the surface and alter its spectrum.

The results of these observations find that the asteroid spectrum becomes bluer due to space weathering on an asteroid surface with a redder spectrum. Previous studies have simulated space weathering on carbonaceous chondrites, which are thought to have a primitive composition such as the red spectrum Tagish Lake meteorite, and also found that the spectrum becomes more blue as space weathering progresses. The agreement between both the laboratory simulation and this observation supports the conclusion that space weathering leads to a bluer spectra.

The observed collision on 596 Scheila is thought to occur approximately once every several thousand to tens of thousands of years. If the surface layer of 596 Scheila is regularly renewed due to collision phenomena of this type, then it is estimated that the time scale for changes due to space weathering is thousands to tens of thousands of years or less, at the longest.

This study found that asteroids with a red spectrum can develop a bluer spectrum due to space weathering. Additionally, previous laboratory experiments have found that carbonaceous chondrite meteorites, which have a flat spectrum, also experience spectra blueing due to space weathering.

When we consider the other asteroids in the asteroid belt, the currently observable surface layer of the asteroids is one that has experienced space weathering. Therefore, in light of this discovery, it is possible that the fresh (non-space weathered) spectra of C, P, T and D-type asteroids, which are thought to have the same spectra as the carbonaceous chondrite meteorites and possess a primitive composition, are actually redder.

In the outer Solar System beyond Neptune, the solar wind and micrometeoroid impacts that are assumed to be the cause of space weathering are thought to have a much weaker effect than in the asteroid belt. It is therefore believed that celestial bodies in this outer region have not undergone significant space weathering. This area is populated with P, T and D-type spectra asteroids and those with even redder spectra, making the overall population redder than those found in the asteroid belt. Based on this, it seems plausible that the real spectra of the P, T, D-type and some C-type asteroids in the asteroid belt are in fact redder than their observed surface, with spectra that match the minor bodies in the outer region of the Solar System, and that they were originally from this outer region.

P, T, D and some C-type asteroids are also found in the Jupiter Trojans and Hildas. In addition, these occupy 80% of the Cybele group (located past the outer part of the asteroid belt), 70% of the outer asteroid belt and 40% of the middle asteroid belt. This indicates intense mixing during the early formation of the Solar System. On the other hand, there are no P, T, D-type asteroids with diameters larger than 100 km in the inner asteroid belt. This imposes a restriction on the mixing.

An impact experiment was also conducted by the Hayabusa2 mission using the onboard small carry-on impactor (SCI). From spectroscopic observations of the generated artificial crater and the natural craters on the surface of 162173 Ryugu, the results from the SCI experiment showed that the fresher material has a bluer spectrum than the older surface. This trend is opposite to the one found in this study. However, the reason for this opposing result is that (1) 596 Scheila and Ryugu have different spectral types and (2) Ryugu may have passed very close to the Sun as it moved from the asteroid belt to the vicinity of the Earth and became heated during that time. Therefore, this results are not necessarily in contradiction and these differences may assist in understanding the history of Ryugu’s evolution.

The Martian moons are the target exploration bodies for the Martian Moons eXploration (MMX) mission. It has been proposed that Mars’s moon, Phobos, may be a captured D-type asteroid. As this research suggests that space weathering causes a blueing of the spectra, it could be expected that spectrum of the fresh Phobos material would be redder than the D-type asteroids, and resemble a celestial body from the outer Solar System. This would suggest Phobos has likely moved from a formation location in the outer edge of the Solar System. Alternatively, there is a theory that the relatively blue parts of Phobos’s surface are due to the space weathered top layer of material shifting to expose fresh surface. In this case, it would be hard to conclude that D-type small bodies redden due to space weathering. This will need to be resolved in the future. To settle the origin of Phobos, sample return from both the surface and subsurface material are being planned by MMX.

Internet Explorer Channel Network
Asia's Tech News Daily
News Related


Too much heavy metal stops stars producing

Stars are giant factories that produce most of the elements in the Universe – including the elements in us, and in the Earth’s metal deposits. But what stars produce changes ... Read more »

Deciphering conditions around the Sun five million years ago

Using high-resolution data obtained from the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph aboard the Hubble Space Telescope, Wesleyan University Professor of Astronomy Seth Redfield can show the conditions the Sun encountered traveling ... Read more »

Researchers Observe Massive CME on Distant, Sun-Like Star

EK Draconis illuminates an unimagined picture of how superflares may affect interplanetary space through coronal mass ejections Welcome to the New Year! While Earth celebrated 2022’s arrival with displays of ... Read more »

North Pole solar eclipse excited auroras on the other side of the world

A solar eclipse over the Arctic created changes in auroras in both of Earth’s hemispheres due to connections through the planet’s magnetic field, according to a new study. The new ... Read more »

Increased space missions risk extraterrestrial contamination

The days of the U.S.-Soviet Space Race are over, and the domain of space exploration is expanding daily to include more countries than ever before. With the advent of private ... Read more »

Planet to launch 44 SuperDove satellites on SpaceX's Falcon 9

Planet Labs PBC reports announced that the launch of their Flock 4x, consisting of 44 SuperDove satellites, will take place on Thursday, January 13th on SpaceX’s Falcon 9 Transporter-3 SSO. ... Read more »

Mangata Networks announces funding for satellite edge computing network

Mangata Networks has closed a $33 million Series A round led by US-based venture capital firm Playground Global to continue its mission to transform the way the world interacts with ... Read more »

Advances in Space Transportation Systems Transforming Space Coast

From a seaside perch overlooking the hustle and bustle of ships coming and going at Port Canaveral on Florida’s east coast, Dale Ketcham reflects on decades of history with nostalgia. ... Read more »

Indian Space Agency tests cryogenic engine for its first-ever manned mission

India’s flagship human spaceflight mission, Gaganyaan, has completed the design and testing phases. The Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) plans to launch two uncrewed missions ahead of the final mission ... Read more »

Manufacturing revenues for Earth observation to grow to $76.1 billion by 2030

Euroconsult, the leading space consulting and market intelligence firm, has released its eagerly awaited ”Earth Observation Satellite Systems Market” report, providing a sweeping review analysis of the Earth Observation (EO) ... Read more »

NASA's new IXPE mission begins science operations

NASA’s newest X-ray eyes are open and ready for discovery! Having spent just over a month in space, the Imaging X-ray Polarimetry Explorer (IXPE) is working and already zeroing in ... Read more »

Ride into space on Vega-C secured for FLEX and Altius

A contract signed with Arianespace secures the joint launch for two satellites that will further knowledge of our home planet. Scheduled to lift off on a new class of rocket, ... Read more »

The Incredible ASIM: Distant galaxy edition

The Atmosphere-Space Interactions Monitor, or ASIM for short, is a first-of-its-kind complement of instruments on the International Space Station. Dubbed the ‘space storm hunter’, ASIM measures electric events in Earth’s ... Read more »

From dust to planet: how gas giants form

Gas giants are made of a massive solid core surrounded by an even larger mass of helium and hydrogen. But even though these planets are quite common in the Universe, ... Read more »

SDSS-V robots turn their eyes to the sky

After twenty-one years of observers loading heavy aluminum plates night after night, the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) is now seeing the cosmos through robotic eyes. Following more than five ... Read more »

Cheops reveals a rugby ball-shaped exoplanet

ESA’s exoplanet mission Cheops has revealed that an exoplanet orbiting its host star within a day has a deformed shape more like that of a rugby ball than a sphere. ... Read more »

Advertising plays key role in satellite TV success, study shows

The pay television market in the United States was dominated by a handful of cable operators until the early 1990s with the entry of satellite TV, which has grown consistently ... Read more »

Elusive atmospheric molecule produced in a lab for the 1st time by UH

The previously elusive methanediol molecule of importance to the organic, atmospheric science and astrochemistry communities has been synthetically produced for the first time by University of Hawai?i at Manoa researchers. ... Read more »

Astroscale U.S. and Orbit Fab sign first on-orbit satellite fuel sale agreement

Orbit Fab, the Gas Stations in Space refueling service provider and Astroscale U.S. Inc., the U.S. subsidiary of Astroscale Holdings Inc. and market leader in securing long-term orbital sustainability, has ... Read more »

ASU instrument captures breathtaking 'first light' images

ASU scientists and engineers building the Europa Thermal Emission Imaging System (E-THEMIS) for NASA’s Europa Clipper passed a major hurdle recently by capturing the first successful test images from this ... Read more »

Astronomers identify potential clue to reinonization of universe

About 400,000 years after the universe was created began a period called “The Epoch of Reionization.” During this time, the once hotter universe began to cool and matter clumped together, ... Read more »

Mini monster black hole could hold clues to giant's growth

The discovery of a supermassive black hole in a relatively small galaxy could help astronomers unravel the mystery surrounding how the very biggest black holes grow. Researchers used NASA’s Chandra ... Read more »

Simulated Image Shows How NASA's Roman Could Expand on Hubble's Deepest View

A team of astrophysicists has created a simulated image that shows how the Nancy Grace Roman Space Telescope could conduct a mega-exposure similar to but far larger than Hubble’s celebrated ... Read more »

Ocean Physics Explain Cyclones on Jupiter

Hurtling around Jupiter and its 79 moons is the Juno spacecraft, a NASA-funded satellite that sends images from the largest planet in our solar system back to researchers on Earth. ... Read more »

Gilmour Space fires up for 2022 with Australia's largest rocket engine test

Rocket engineers at Gilmour Space Technologies have greeted the new year with a successful 110-kilonewton test fire of the most powerful rocket engine ever developed in Australia. The 75-second test ... Read more »

Prestwick Spaceport Files Planning Application Notice

South Ayrshire Council has started the process of submitting a formal planning application for the Prestwick Spaceport development. The Proposal of Application Notice (POAN) is the first step in the ... Read more »

Life could be thriving in the clouds of Venus

by Eric Verbeten for WISC News Is there life on Venus? For more than a century, scientists have pondered this question. Now, there is renewed interest in Venus as a ... Read more »

How the Earth's tilt creates short, cold January days

As the Earth orbits the sun, it spins around an axis – picture a stick going through the Earth, from the North Pole to the South Pole. During the 24 ... Read more »

NASA's newest astronaut class begins training in Houston

NASA swore in 10 new astronaut candidates Monday at Johnson Space Center in Houston — six men and four women — who someday may walk on the moon or Mars. ... Read more »

Shouzhou XIII crew finishes cargo spacecraft, space station docking test

The Shenzhou XIII astronauts in China’s space station core module have completed the manual rendezvous and docking experiment with the Tianzhou 2 cargo craft, the China Manned Space Agency (CMSA) ... Read more »

Take-Two to buy 'Farmville' creator Zynga for $12.7 bn

Video game publisher Take-Two announced Monday it reached a deal to acquire “Farmville” creator Zynga for $12.7 billion, in a major mobile gaming push by the maker of “Grand Theft ... Read more »

Hubble sees cosmic clues in a galactic duo

This spectacular image from the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope captures the spiral galaxy NGC 105, which lies roughly 215 million light-years away in the constellation Pisces. While it looks like ... Read more »

Eccentric exoplanet discovered

Led by the University of Bern, an international research team has discovered a sub-Neptune exoplanet orbiting a red dwarf star. The discovery was also made thanks to observations performed by ... Read more »

Real-time alert system heralds new era in fast radio burst research

McGill University scientists have developed a new system for sharing the enormous amount of data being generated by the CHIME radio telescope in its search for fast radio bursts (FRBs), ... Read more »

NASA to host coverage for Webb Telescope's final unfolding

NASA will provide live coverage and host a media briefing Saturday, Jan. 8, for the conclusion of the James Webb Space Telescope’s major spacecraft deployments. Beginning no earlier than 9 ... Read more »

Loft Orbital extends production agreement with LeoStella

Loft Orbital Solutions, Inc. (Loft Orbital), a leading space infrastructure-as-a-service provider, and LeoStella, Inc., a specialized satellite constellation design and manufacturing company, have extended their production agreement to secure multiple ... Read more »

Arianespace consolidates leadership in commercial market with 15 Ariane, Soyuz and Vega launches in 2021

Arianespace confirmed its strong performance in 2021, with 15 successful launches – five more than in 2020 – and 305 satellites sent into orbit using its three launchers, Ariane, Soyuz ... Read more »

Debris from failed Russian rocket falls into sea near French Polynesia

The upper stage of a failed Russian Angara A5 rocket plummeted uncontrolled to Earth, crashing into open sea near French Polynesia. The U.S. 18th Space Control Squadron confirmed the 4 ... Read more »

Metaverse gets touch of reality at CES

A jacket equipped with sensors that let wearers feel hugs or even punches in virtual reality was among the innovations giving the metaverse a more realistic edge at the Consumer ... Read more »

Webb Secondary Mirror Deployment Confirmed

The Webb teams has deployed the observatory’s secondary mirror support structure. When light from the distant universe hits Webb’s iconic 18 gold primary mirrors, it will reflect off and hit ... Read more »
On you will find lots of free English exam practice materials to help you improve your English skills: grammar, listening, reading, writing, ielts, toeic