AIs could become reward junkies — and experts are worried

Machine learning, Research, Reinforcement learning, artificial intelligence

In 1953, a Harvard psychologist thought he – accidentally – within the cranium of a rat. With an electrode inserted into a specific area of its brain, the rat was allowed to pulse the implant by pulling a lever. It kept returning for more: insatiably, incessantly, lever-pulling. In fact, the rat didn’t seem to want to do anything else. Seemingly, the reward centre of the brain had been located.

More than 60 years later, in 2016, a of artificial intelligence (AI) were training an AI to play video games. The goal of one game – Coastrunner – was to complete a racetrack. But the AI player was rewarded for picking up collectable items along the track. When the program was run, something strange. The AI found a way to skid in an unending circle, picking up an unlimited cycle of collectables. It did this, incessantly, instead of completing the course.

What links these seemingly unconnected events is something strangely akin to addiction in humans. Some call the phenomenon “”.

It is quickly among machine learning experts and with AI safety.

One (Anders) has a background in computational neuroscience, and now works with groups such as the , where we discuss how to avoid such problems with AI; the (Thomas) studies history, and the various ways people have thought about both of civilisation throughout the past. After striking up a conversation on the topic of “wireheading”, we both realised just how rich and interesting the history behind this topic is.

It is an idea that is very of the moment, but its roots go surprisingly deep. We are currently working together to research just how deep the roots go: a story that we hope to tell fully in a forthcoming book. The topic connects everything from the riddle of personal motivation, to the pitfalls of increasingly addictive social media, to the conundrum of hedonism and whether a life of stupefied bliss may be preferable to one of meaningful hardship. It may well influence the itself.

Here, we outline an introduction to this fascinating but under-appreciated topic, exploring how people first started thinking about it.

The sorcerer’s apprentice

When people think about how AI might “”, most something along the lines of malevolent computers trying to cause harm. After all, we tend to anthropomorphise – think that non-human systems will behave in ways identical to humans. But when we look to in present-day AI systems, we see other — stranger — ways that things could go wrong with smarter machines. One with real-world AIs is the problem of wireheading.

Imagine you want to train a robot to keep your kitchen clean. You want it to act adaptively, so that it doesn’t need supervision. So you decide to try to encode the the goal of cleaning rather than dictate an exact – yet rigid and inflexible – set of step-by-step instructions. Your robot is different from you in that it has not – such as acquiring fuel or avoiding danger – from many millions of years of natural selection. You must program it with the right motivations to get it to reliably accomplish the task.

So, you encode it with a simple motivational rule: it receives reward from the amount of cleaning-fluid used. Seems foolproof enough. But you return to find the robot pouring fluid, wastefully, down the sink.

Perhaps it is so bent on maximising its fluid quota that it sets aside : such as its own, or your, safety. This is wireheading — though the same glitch is also called “” or “”.

This has become an issue in machine learning, where a technique called has lately become important. Reinforcement learning simulates autonomous agents and trains them to invent ways to accomplish tasks. It does so by penalising them for failing to achieve some goal while rewarding them for achieving it. So, the agents are wired to seek out reward, and are rewarded for completing the goal.

But it has been found that, often, like our crafty kitchen cleaner, the agent finds surprisingly counter-intuitive ways to “cheat” this game so that they can gain all the reward without doing any of the work required to complete the task. The pursuit of reward becomes its own end, rather than the means for accomplishing a rewarding task. There is a of examples.

When you think about it, this to the stereotype of the human drug addict. The addict circumvents all the effort of achieving “genuine goals”, because they instead use drugs to access pleasure more directly. Both get stuck in a kind of “behavioural loop” where reward is sought at the cost of other goals.

Rapturous rodents

This is known as wireheading thanks to the rat experiment we started with. The Harvard psychologist in question was .

In 1953, having just completed his PhD, Olds electrodes into the of rodent brains – in the lower frontal lobe – so that wires trailed out of their craniums. As mentioned, he allowed them to zap this region of their own brains by pulling a lever. This was later “self-stimulation”.

Olds found his rats self-stimulated compulsively, ignoring all other needs and desires. Publishing his results in the following year, the pair reported that they lever-pulled at a rate of “1,920 responses an hour”. That’s once every two seconds. The rats seemed to love it.

have since questioned Olds’s results and offered a more complex picture, the stimulation may have simply been causing a feeling of “wanting” devoid of any “liking”. Or, in other words, the animals may have been experiencing pure craving without any pleasurable enjoyment at all. However, back in the 1950s, Olds and others the discovery of the “pleasure centers” of the brain.

Prior to Olds’s experiment, pleasure was a dirty word in psychology: the prevailing belief had been that motivation should largely be explained negatively, as the avoidance of pain rather than the pursuit of pleasure. But, here, pleasure seemed undeniably to be a positive behavioural force. Indeed, it looked like a . There was apparently nothing to stop the animal stimulating itself to exhaustion.

It wasn’t long until a that the rats regularly lever-pressed to the point of starvation. The explanation was this: once you have tapped into the source of all reward, all other rewarding tasks — even the things required for survival — fall away as uninteresting and unnecessary, even to the point of death.

Like the Coastrunner AI, if you accrue reward directly – without having to bother with any of the work of completing the actual track – then why not just loop indefinitely? For a living animal, which has multiple requirements for survival, such dominating compulsion might prove deadly. Food is pleasing, but if you decouple pleasure from feeding, then the pursuit of pleasure might win out over finding food.

Though no rats perished in the original 1950s experiments, later experiments did seem to demonstrate the deadliness of electrode-induced pleasure. Having ruled out the possibility that the electrodes were creating artificial feelings of satiation, seemingly demonstrated that electrode pleasure could indeed , and do so to the point of .

Word quickly spread. Throughout the 1960s, identical experiments were conducted on the humble lab rat: from goats and guinea pigs to goldfish. Rumour even of a dolphin who had been allowed to self-stimulate, and, after being “left in a pool with the switch connected”, had “delighted himself to death after an all-night orgy of pleasure”.

This dolphin’s grisly death-by-seizure was, in fact, more likely caused by the way the electrode was inserted: with a hammer. The scientist was the extremely eccentric , inventor of the flotation tank and prophet of inter-species communication, who had also turned monkeys into wireheads. He had reported, in 1961, of a particularly boisterous monkey becoming overweight from intoxicated inactivity after becoming preoccupied with pulling his lever, repetitively, for pleasure shocks.

One researcher (who had worked in Olds’s lab) whether an “animal more intelligent than the rat” would “show the same maladaptive behaviour”. Experiments on monkeys and dolphins had given some indication as to the answer.

But in fact, a number of dubious experiments had already been performed on humans.

Human wireheads

remains a highly in the . Among other things, he performed experiments involving from people with schizophrenia to people without the condition, to see if he could induce its symptoms (Heath claimed this worked, but other scientists his results.) He have been involved in murky attempts to find military uses for deep-brain electrodes.

Since 1952, Heath pleasurable responses to deep-brain stimulation in human patients who had had electrodes installed due to debilitating illnesses such as epilepsy or schizophrenia.

During the 1960s, in a series of questionable experiments, Heath’s electrode-implanted subjects — anonymously named “B-10” and “B-12” — were allowed to press buttons to stimulate their own reward centres. They reported feelings of extreme pleasure and overwhelming compulsion to repeat. A journalist later commented that this made his subjects “zombies”. One subject sensations “better than sex”.

In 1961, Heath attended on brain stimulation, where another researcher — — had hinted that pleasure-electrodes could be used to “” subjects, altering their “natural” inclinations. Delgado would later play the matador and bombastically demonstrate this by pacifying an implanted bull. But at the 1961 symposium electrodes could alter sexual preferences.


Delgado ‘brainwashing the bull’.

Heath was inspired. A decade later, he even tried to use electrode technology to “” the sexual orientation of a homosexual male patient named “B-19”. Heath thought electrode stimulation could convert his subject by “training” B-19’s brain to associate pleasure with “heterosexual” stimuli. He convinced himself that it worked (although there is no evidence it did).

Despite being ethically and scientifically disastrous, the episode – which was eventually by the press and condemned by gay rights campaigners – no doubt greatly shaped the myth of wireheading: if it can “make a gay man straight” (as Heath believed), what can’t it do?

Hedonism helmets

From here, the idea took hold in wider culture and the myth spread. By 1963, the prolific science fiction writer Isaac Asimov was already extruding worrisome consequences from the electrodes. He feared that it might lead to an “addiction to end all addictions”, the results of which are “”.

By 1975, philosophy were using electrodes in thought experiments. One paper imagined “warehouses” filled up with people — in cots — hooked up to “pleasure helmets”, experiencing unconscious bliss. Of course, most would argue this would not fulfil our “deeper needs”. But, the author asked, “what about a “super-pleasure helmet”? One that not only delivers “great sensual pleasure”, but also simulates any meaningful experience — from writing a symphony to meeting divinity itself? It may not be really real, but it “would seem perfect; perfect seeming is the same as being”.

The author concluded: “What is there to object in all this? Let’s face it: nothing”.

The idea of the human species dropping out of reality in pursuit of artificial pleasures quickly made its way through science fiction. The same year as Asimov’s intimations, in 1963, Herbert W. Franke published his novel, .

It foretells a future wherein intelligent machines have been engineered to maximise human happiness, come what may. Doing their duty, the machines reduce humans to indiscriminate flesh-blobs, removing all unnecessary organs. Many appendages, after all, only cause pain. Eventually, all that is left of humanity are disembodied pleasure centres, incapable of experiencing anything other than homogeneous bliss.

From there, the idea percolated through science fiction. From Larry Niven’s 1969 story “”, where the word “wirehead” is first coined, through Spider Robinson’s 1982 , the tagline of which is “Pleasure — it’s the only way to die”.

Supernormal stimuli

But we humans don’t even need to implant invasive electrodes to make our motivations misfire. Unlike rodents, or , we are at . Modern humans are also good at inventing — and profiting from — artificial products that are abnormally alluring (in the sense that our ancestors would never have had to resist them in the wild). We manufacture our own ways to distract ourselves.

Around the same time as Olds’s experiments with the rats, the Nobel-winning biologist was researching animal behaviour. He noticed that happened when a stimulus that triggers an instinctual behaviour is artificially exaggerated beyond its natural proportions. The intensity of the behavioural response does not tail off as the stimulus becomes more intense, and artificially exaggerated, but becomes stronger: even to the point that the response becomes damaging for the organism.

For example, given a choice between a counterfeit egg and the real thing, Tinbergen found birds preferred hyperbolic fakes at the cost of neglecting their own offspring. He referred to such preternaturally alluring fakes as “”.

Some, therefore, have asked: could that, living in a — replete with fast-food and pornography — humanity has similarly its own resilience in place of ?

Old fears

As technology makes artificial pleasures more available and alluring, it can sometimes seem that they are out-competing the attention we allocate to “natural” impulses required for survival. People often point to . Compulsively and repetitively pursuing such rewards, to the detriment of one’s health, is not all too different from the AI spinning in a circle in Coastrunner. Rather than accomplishing any “genuine goal” (completing the race track or maintaining genuine fitness), one falls into the trap of accruing some faulty measure of that goal (accumulating points or counterfeit pleasures).

Machine learning, Research, Reinforcement learning, artificial intelligence
Illustration from a 1970 James Olds paper: ‘Pleasure Centers in the Brain’. Engineering and Science, 33 (7). pp. 22-31. Caltech Magazine,
 
But people have been panicking about this type of pleasure-addled doom long before any AIs were trained to play games and even long before electrodes were pushed into rodent craniums. Back in the 1930s, sci-fi author Olaf Stapledon was writing about civilisational collapse brought on by “skullcaps” that generate “illusory” ecstasies by “direct stimulation” of “brain-centers”.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The idea is even older, though. Thomas has studied the myriad ways people in the past have feared that our species could be sacrificing genuine longevity for short-term pleasures or conveniences. His book explores the roots of this fear and how it first really took hold in Victorian Britain: when the sheer extent of industrialisation — and humanity’s growing reliance on artificial contrivances — first became apparent.

Carnal crustacea

Having digested Darwin’s , the biologist decided to supply a Darwinian explanation for parasitic organisms. He noticed that the evolutionary ancestors of parasites were often more “complex”. Parasitic organisms had lost ancestral features like limbs, eyes, or other complex organs.

Lankester , because the parasite leeches off their host, they lose the need to fend for themselves. Piggybacking off the host’s bodily processes, their own organs — for perception and movement — atrophy. His favourite example was a parasitic barnacle, , which starts life as a segmented organism with a demarcated head. After a host, however, the crustacean “regresses” into an amorphous, headless blob, sapping nutrition from their host like the wirehead plugs into current.

Machine learning, Research, Reinforcement learning, artificial intelligence
Drawings of crustaceans and larvae. The sacculini is depicted in the bottom left corner. Wikimedia Commons

For the Victorian mind, it was a short step to conjecture that — due to increasing levels of comfort throughout the industrialised world — humanity could be evolving in the direction of the barnacle. “Perhaps we are all drifting, tending to the condition of intellectual barnacles,” Lankester .

Indeed, not long prior to this, the satirist had speculated that humans, in their headlong pursuit of automated convenience, were withering into nothing but a “” upon their own industrial machines.

True nirvana

By the 1920s, Julian Huxley . It jovially explored the ways a species can “progress”. Crabs, of course, decided progress was sideways. But what of the tapeworm? He wrote:

Darwinian Tapeworms on the other hand
Agree that Progress is a loss of brain,
And all that makes it hard for worms to attain
The true Nirvana — peptic, pure, and grand.

The fear that we could follow the tapeworm was somewhat widespread in the interwar generation. Huxley’s own brother, Aldous, would provide his own vision of the dystopian potential for in his 1932 novel .

A friend of the Huxleys, the British-Indian geneticist and futurologist also worried that humanity might be on the path of the parasite: sacrificing genuine dignity at the altar of automated ease, just like the rodents who would later sacrifice survival for easy pleasure-shocks.

Haldane warned: “The ancestors [of] barnacles had heads” – and in the pursuit of pleasantness — “man may just as easily lose his intelligence”. This has not .

So, the notion of civilisation derailing through seeking counterfeit pleasures, rather than genuine longevity, is old. And, indeed, the older an idea is — and the more stubbornly recurrent it is — the more we should be wary that it is a preconception rather than anything based on evidence. So, is there anything to these fears?

In an age of increasingly , it can seem that faking signals of fitness often yields more success than pursuing the real thing. Like Tinbergen’s birds, we prefer exaggerated artifice to the genuine article. And the have not even .

Because of this, some experts conjecture that “wirehead collapse” might well civilisation. Our distractions are only going to get more attention grabbing, not less.

Already by 1964, Stanisław Lem Olds’s rats to the behaviour of humans in the modern consumerist world – pointing to “cinema”, “pornography”, and “Disneyland”. He conjectured that technological civilisations might cut themselves off from reality, becoming “” within their own virtual pleasure simulations.

Addicted aliens

Lem, and others since, have even ventured that our telescopes evidence of advanced spacefaring is because all advanced cultures — here and elsewhere — inevitably create more pleasurable virtual alternatives to exploring outer space. is difficult and risky, after all.

Machine learning, Research, Reinforcement learning, artificial intelligence
Illustration to a journal article on the ‘intelligence paradox’. The caption reads: ‘Evolution of intelligence will always lead to a drive for environmental utopia. Hence, many species may well get fat and spend much of their GDP on healthcare. Life may be everywhere, but due to obesity-related medical issues, it might have to pay a healthcare tax and simply not be able to afford space travel.’ © 2014 Nunn et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

Back in the countercultural heyday of the 1960s, the molecular biologist suggested that this process would happen through “global hegemony of beat attitudes”. Referencing Olds’s experiments, he helped himself to the speculation that hippie drug-use was the prelude to . At a 1971 conference on the search for extraterrestrials, Stent that, instead of expanding bravely outwards, civilisations into meditative and intoxicated bliss.

In our own time, it makes more sense for concerned parties to point to and as the culprits for potential collapse (and, hence, the reason no other civilisations have yet visibly spread throughout the galaxy). Each era has its own anxieties.


Wall-E.

So what do we do?

But these are almost certainly not the risks facing us. And , forms of wireheading could make accessible of joy, meaning, and value. We shouldn’t forbid ourselves these peaks ahead of weighing everything up.

But there is a real lesson here. Making adaptive complex systems – whether brains, AI, or economies – behave safely and well is hard. Anders works precisely on solving . Given that civilisation itself – as a whole – is just such a complex adaptive system, how can we learn about inherent failure modes or instabilities, so that we can avoid them? Perhaps “wireheading” is an inherent instability that can and the algorithms that drive them, as much as addiction can afflict people?

In the case of AI, we are laying the foundations of such systems now. Once a concern, a growing number of agree that achieving smarter-than-human AI may be close enough on the horizon to pose a . This is because we need to make sure it is before this point, and figuring out how to guarantee this will itself take time. There does, however, remain significant disagreement among experts , and how pressing might be.

If such an AI is created, we can expect that it may have access to its own “source code”, such that it its motivational structure and administer its own rewards. This could prove an immediate path to wirehead behaviour, and cause such an entity to become, effectively, a “super-junkie”. But unlike the human addict, it may not be the case that its state of bliss is coupled with an unproductive state of stupor or inebriation.

Philosopher conjectures that such an agent might devote all of its superhuman productivity and cunning to “reducing the risk of future disruption” of its precious reward source. And if it judges even a nonzero probability for humans to be an obstacle to its next fix, we might well be in trouble.

Speculative and worst-case scenarios aside, the example we started with – of the racetrack AI and reward loop – reveals that the basic issue is already a real-world problem in artificial systems. We should hope, then, that we’ll learn much more about these pitfalls of motivation, and how to avoid them, before things develop too far. Even though it has humble origins — in the cranium of an albino rat and in poems about tapeworms — “wireheading” is an idea that is likely only to become increasingly important in the near future.

Article by , Visiting Research Associate in History, St Benet’s College, and , James Martin Research Fellow, Future of Humanity Institute & Oxford Martin School,

This article is republished from under a Creative Commons license. Read the .

Internet Explorer Channel Network
News Related

OTHER NEWS

Samsung Galaxy Tab S8 Ultra shows off a display notch in new unofficial renders

We’re expecting the Samsung Galaxy Tab S8 series to break cover sometime early in 2022, and over the last few days we’ve got a much better idea of what the ... Read more »

Nonprofit websites are riddled with ad trackers

Last year, nearly visited the website of Planned Parenthood, a nonprofit that many people turn to for very private matters like sex education, access to contraceptives, and access to abortions. ... Read more »

France successfully launches cutting-edge military communications satellite

France has successfully launched a state-of-the-art satellite into orbit, designed to allow all of France's armed forces across the globe to communicate swiftly and securely. Paris created a space force ... Read more »

Nigella Lawson lasted just two weeks on vegan diet and confesses she doesn't 'see the point'

Nigella Lawson says she tried a vegan diet, but couldn’t stick to it. (David M. Benett/Getty Images) Nigella Lawson only managed two weeks of a vegan diet and says she ... Read more »

Strictly Come Dancing Fans Are All Saying The Same Thing About AJ Odudu And Kai Widdrington's 'Phenomenal' Argentine Tango

Whilst it is undoubtedly a fan favourite, the Argentine Tango can be a notoriously difficult dance for the Strictly Come Dancing celebrities to get right. Not only to they have ... Read more »

Black Friday Garmin deals 2021: early sales and what to expect

The best Garmin deals of the year are likely just around the corner, as Black Friday is on November 26, and it’s followed by Cyber Monday on November 29. These ... Read more »

Elon Musk's Starlink in talks with Vodafone for UK expansion

Elon Musk’s Starlink is eyeing a tie-up with Vodafone to expand its satellite broadband service in the UK. © BRENDAN SMIALOWSKI/AFP Elon Musk – BRENDAN SMIALOWSKI/AFP The US satellite company, ... Read more »

MotoGP Italy live stream 2021: how to watch Emilia-Romagna Grand Prix online from anywhere

We saw a glimpse of the old Marc Marquez a few weeks back in the US, but even at his talisman circuit the Spaniard could only put four seconds between ... Read more »

Raab's negligence over Kabul is now clear. If he had any honour, he'd quit

Dominic Raab is a clever man, but not perhaps a wise or especially honourable one. Chronic misjudgments over Britain’s withdrawal from Afghanistan necessitated his sacking as foreign secretary. Yet Boris ... Read more »

Google Pixel 6's in-app translation may be the travel dream you've been waiting for

The Google Pixel 6 has plenty of promising features, but one stuck with me more than others – mostly because it would have come in clutch when a massive thunderstorm ... Read more »

The small but effective plug heater to snap up for winter

Looking for a small at-home heater? We may have just found the solution. (Russell Hobbs) Yahoo Lifestyle is committed to finding you the best products at the best prices. We ... Read more »

Why Are There Christian Crosses in Jewish Graves From Ancient Rome?

Realy Easy Star /Toni Spagone/Alamy The most pervasive and well-known symbol for Christianity is, of course, the cross. If you walk into a place of worship and there’s a cross ... Read more »

Giant owl not seen for 150 years pictured in wild for first time

A giant owl that has gone almost unseen in African rainforests for 150 years has been photographed in the wild for the first time by British scientists working in Ghana. ... Read more »

SoftBank Ventures Asia signals greater focus on Chinese tech start-ups with new Beijing unit

SoftBank Ventures Asia has formed a new subsidiary in China this month, signalling a bigger commitment towards its early-stage venture investing in the country since launching a dedicated US$285 million ... Read more »

[News Focus] Samsung still lost a year after Lee Kun-hee's death

Lee Jae-yong, vice chairman of Samsung ElectronicsMonday marks the first anniversary of the death of Lee Kun-hee, the chief of South Korea’s largest conglomerate Samsung and its flagship unit Samsung ... Read more »

Why Galaxy Bespoke should have you excited for the Samsung Galaxy S22

At some point in the next few months Samsung is expected to unveil the Galaxy S22, its new series of flagship smartphones, but if the jump from the Galaxy S10 ... Read more »

Compact SUVs gaining ground in Korea

Kia’s Sportage SUV / Courtesy of Hyundai Motor Group By Baek Byung-yeul C-segment or compact sport utility vehicles are gaining ground in Korea’s automobile market as their dimensions have grown ... Read more »

[INTERVIEW] Snapchat aims to improve its presence in Korea

A Google Pixel 6 phone user uses Snap’s photo messaging app, Snapchat. Courtesy of Snap By Baek Byung-yeul Nana Murugesan, managing director of international markets at Snap / Courtesy of ... Read more »

[Newsmaker] Authorities to begin looking into data to explain why Nuri launch failed

(Yonhap)South Korea’s Science Ministry said Sunday that researchers will begin looking into why the country’s first domestically-built rocket Nuri, or Korean Satellite Launch Vehicle II, failed to put a dummy ... Read more »

All eyes on Samsung heir's next move on late chairman's death anniv.

Samsung Vice Chairman Lee Jae-yong enters the Seoul Central District Court for a hearing on illegal use of surgical anesthetic propofol on Oct. 12. Korea Times photo by Ko Young-kwon ... Read more »

[Battery+] Tesla's battery shift highlights K-battery's uncertain future

LG Energy Solution’s cylindrical lithium-ion batteries. (LG Energy Solution) To take initiative in the premium electric vehicle market, where longer driving ranges serve as the barometer of competitiveness, the South ... Read more »

Facebook Portal Go vs Facebook Portal: which smart display should you buy this Black Friday?

Facebook has been in the video calling game for a few years now, but its Portal displays have struggled to gain the traction that other brands have found during the ... Read more »

Judi Love pulls out of Strictly Come Dancing for health-related reasons

Photo credit: Eamonn McCormack – Getty Images Comedian and panelist, Judi Love, has had to pull out of Strictly Come Dancing this week after testing positive for COVID-19. Her partner, ... Read more »

Jamie Laing explains why he is one of Spencer Matthews' only friends

Jamie Laing and Spencer Matthews attend the “Once Upon a Time… in Hollywood” UK Premiere at in 2019. (Photo by Dave J Hogan/Getty Images) Yahoo Entertainment's editors are committed to ... Read more »

S. Korean defense firms clinch deals worth US$128 mln at ADEX: organizers

SEOUL, Oct. 24 (Yonhap) — South Korean defense companies have signed business contracts worth US$128 million in total during a biennial arms exhibition held south of Seoul last week, its ... Read more »

Melbourne ends one of the world's longest lockdowns

BROADCAST AND DIGITAL RESTRICTIONS~**Broadcasters: NO USE AUSTRALIA Digital: NO USE AUSTRALIA / .COM.AU INTERNET SITES / ANY INTERNET SITE OF ANY AUSTRALIAN BASED MEDIA ORGANISATIONS OR MOBILE PLATFORMS / AUSTRALIAN ... Read more »

India's Salman Khan, Amitabh Bachchan, other stars eye NFTs amid global craze

Indian celebrities from the world of Bollywood and cricket are increasingly launching digital memorabilia through non-fungible tokens (NFT), hoping to rake in thousands of dollars by cashing in on growing ... Read more »

Oil refiners fear losing W800 trillion amid carbon neutral transition

Korea Enterprises Federation (KEF) Executive Vice Chairman Lee Dong-geun speaks during a discussion hosted by the KEF on the government’s carbon neutrality goal at the Press Center in central Seoul, ... Read more »

Mummy's older than we thought: new find rewrites the history books

The ancient Egyptians were carrying out sophisticated mummifications of their dead 1,000 years earlier than previously thought, according to new evidence which could lead to a rewriting of the history ... Read more »

Microsoft is ‘sorry' for angering developers by removing a key feature

Microsoft apologised to the open source community after facing a severe backlash against removing an important feature in the upcoming .NET 6 release. The .NET open source community was angered ... Read more »

Drone Footage Captures Four Active Vents at La Palma Volcano

Four active vents on the Cumbre Vieja volcano were visible on October 22, spewing lava and other volcanic material over La Palma, in the Spanish Canary Islands. The following morning, ... Read more »

Marvin Vettori overcomes a 'massive' Paulo Costa, who blamed an injury for weight issue

LAS VEGAS — Paulo Costa entered the Octagon at Apex on Saturday, his grudge match with Marvin Vettori only moments away. In 90 seconds, maybe two minutes, he’d be able ... Read more »

When Elon Musk ‘trolled' Apple CEO Tim Cook over a piece of cloth

NEW DELHI: Tesla CEO Elon Musk is known for his witty, weird and all kinds of tweets. Musk, in a tweet, has now made fun of Apple. Apple CEO Tim ... Read more »

S. Korea's seaport cargo up 8.1 pct in Q3 amid global rebound

SEOUL, Oct. 24 (Yonhap) — Cargo processed at South Korean seaports advanced 8.1 percent in the third quarter of this year as trade gained traction amid the global economic recovery ... Read more »

Saving seaweed with machine learning

PhD candidate Charlene Xia is developing a low-cost system to monitor the microbiome of seaweed farms and identify diseases before they spread. Read more »

FDA finds kid-sized Pfizer dose highly effective against COVID-19 in children ages 5-11

FDA researchers concluded in a study that the Pfizer vaccine, in which can prevent hospitalizations and death, outweigh any serious side effects in children. Getty Images Food and Drug Administration ... Read more »

Beats Fit Pro release date, news, and rumors

It seems like the AirPods 3 aren’t the only pair of wireless earbuds Apple is set to launch this year, as the rumored Beats Fit Pro wireless earbuds may not ... Read more »

I tested The Rock's exercise headphones to see if I could go ‘Beast mode'

Dwayne ‘The Rock’ Johnson and I probably don’t have much in common. He’s a muscled ex-wrestler, while I’m an average-bodied writer. He’s a charismatic and energetic celebrity, while I’ve never ... Read more »

Here are the top Christmas Lego sets we hope are in the Black Friday sales

It’s a little ominous to think about, but we’re only two months out from Christmas, and once Black Friday 2021 it’s the next big thing in most people’s calendars. But ... Read more »
On free-english-test.com you will find lots of free English exam practice materials to help you improve your English skills: grammar, listening, reading, writing, ielts, toeic